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  • Gymnosperm Featured Article Gymnosperm Gymnosperm

    A gymnosperm is one of a number of non-flowering seed bearing vegetation species, including conifers, cycads, Ginkgo and Gnetales.  These species arose first in the... More »

  • Fluorine Featured Article Fluorine Fluorine

    Fluorine is a highly reactive chemical element with atomic symbol F. Having the atomic number nine, fluorine is the lightest halogen. Fluorine is a yellow-green gas... More »

  • Composting tips Featured Article Composting tips Composting tips

    Composting turns household wastes into valuable fertilizer and soil organic matter. All organic matter eventually decomposes. Composting speeds the process by providing an... More »

  • Frugivore Featured Article Frugivore Frugivore

    A frugivore is a type of herbivore (plant-eating animal) that eats a substantial portion of fruit.  A few frugivores species eat only fruit, but many also consume leaves... More »

  • Trinity Site, New Mexico Featured Article Trinity Site, New Mexico Trinity Site, New Mexico

    Trinity Site, Alamogordo Bombing Range, New Mexico ( 33°40'30.00"N, 106°28'30.00"W) was the site of the first atmospheric atomic bomb test which took... More »

  • Limestone Featured Article Limestone Limestone

      Limestone  is a sedimentary rock whose chief mineral component is calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3). Limestone can be formed by precipitation of calcite... More »

  • Marine microbes Featured Article Marine microbes Marine microbes

    The term 'Marine microbes' encompasses all microscopic organisms generally found in saltwater. Most micro-organisms are acellular and fall into the major categories of... More »

  • Carpenter bee Featured Article Carpenter bee Carpenter bee

    This hexapod (six-legged) insect is a bee in the subfamily Xylocoinae of either the genus Ceratina or Xylocopa that makes its nest in wood or plant stems. Along... More »

  • Dugong Featured Article Dugong Dugong

    The Dugong, often referred to as the sea cow, is actually more closely related to elephants than to the bovine namesake.  Throughout much of their range, the Dugong has... More »

Recently Updated
India Last Updated on 2014-10-28 12:08:45 India is one of the major nations of the world. With 1,205 million people, it has the second largest population (after China). It is bordered by the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean in the south, east and west. To the North, it borders Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma), China, Nepal, and Pakistan. India has a long and complex history reflected in its intricate mixture of ethnic groups, languages and cultures. While, density populated, India is home to a wide range of varied ecoregions with important biodiversity.  Its major environmental issues include: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides and herbicides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; and, its huge and growing... More »
Plant Last Updated on 2014-10-28 12:04:37 A plant is any one of the vast number of organisms within the biological kingdom Plantae; in general, these species are considered of limited motility and generally manufacture their own food. They include a host of familiar organisms including trees, forbs, shrubs, grasses, vines, ferns, and mosses. Conventionally the term plant implies a taxon with characteristics of multicellularity, cell structure with walls containing cellulose, and organisms capable of photosynthesis. Modern classification schemes are driven by somewhat rigid categorizations inherent in DNA and common ancestry.[1] Throughout most of the history of science from Aristotle to Linnaeus and into the 20th century, species were divided into two kingdoms: animals and plants. Driven by DNA characterizations and other modern analysis, fungi and bacteria have now been removed to separate kingdoms; in particular,... More »
Fossil fuel Last Updated on 2014-10-28 12:02:28 Fossil fuel is any naturally occurring carbon compound found in the Earth's crust that has been produced by anaerobic conditions and high pressures acting on dead organisms. These fossil fuel deposits are typically found at depths beneath the Earth surface or ocean floor of tens of meters to kilometers, and often occur in large agglomerations of gas, liquid or solid matter. Presently, combustion of fossil fuels account for over 86 percent of the world's artificial energy delivered to the human society. These fuels are considered non-renweable in that their natural creation time requires millions of years. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels causes significant adverse environmental consequences to biodiversity, air quality and water quality, as well as substantial impacts to human health and mortality. These processes also generate large... More »
Food Production and Irrigation Last Updated on 2014-10-28 11:57:28   Timing crop plantings to take advantage of seasonal water availability, although still widely practiced, is no longer sufficient to feed the world. More and more farmers supplement available soil water through irrigation using water collected from different locations or at different times of the year. Irrigated acreage and water withdrawals for agriculture have doubled since 1975. Over the same period, water withdrawals for industrial and domestic purposes have increased four-fold, but they still account for less than half of the amount withdrawn for agricultural purposes.  The majority of the world’s best farmland, in terms of climate and soils, is located in the temperate zones that lie between the tropics and the polar circles. A large percentage of this land is now irrigated. Water for irrigation in several major agricultural regions depends on snow that... More »
Renewable electricity politics across borders Last Updated on 2014-10-28 11:54:29 It is now widely accepted that many of the systems for generating electricity in place worldwide are unsustainable. In spite of helping to create unprecedented levels of economic wealth, a predominant reliance upon large, centralized power stations, largely “fueled” by fossil fuels and uranium connected to a web of transmission and distribution lines, has a number of negative consequences as well. One of the most significant of those sustainability impacts is the effect that systems of electricity supply have on global climate change. With 66 percent of the world’s commercial electricity generated by fossil fuels in 2003 (including 40 percent of the total by coal), conventional methods to generate power are serving to increase carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere (and, though to a lesser extent, also serving to increase concentrations of other greenhouse... More »