Composting turns household wastes into valuable fertilizer and soil organic matter.
All organic matter eventually decomposes. Composting speeds the process by providing an...
PopulationLast Updated on 2014-11-20 11:53:49Population is the study of the character, number, and distribution of living organisms residing in or migrating through particular places. The study of populations is a quantifiable foundation for concepts in sociology, ecology, genetics and evolution by means of natural selection. Study of population is closely associated with social and biological sciences and it examines the relative size of a breeding group with respect to the age structure, number of viable offspring, survival rates, and longevity among separate aggregations. Human demography, as a branch of sociology, is the study of the attributes of and changes in the aggregate number of people residing in particular communities around the world and their causes.
On August 1, 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the Earth's human population at over 6.859 billion people. It grew at an estimated rate... More »
Water pollutionLast Updated on 2014-11-17 12:18:45Water pollution is the contamination of natural water bodies by chemical, physical, radioactive or pathogenic microbial substances. Adverse alteration of water quality presently produces large scale illness and deaths, accounting for approximately 50 million deaths per year worldwide, most of these deaths occurring in Africa and Asia. In China, for example, about 75 percent of the population (or 1.1 billion people) are without access to unpolluted drinking water, according to China's own standards. Widespread consequences of water pollution upon ecosystems include species mortality, biodiversity reduction and loss of ecosystem services. Some consider that water pollution may occur from natural causes such as sedimentation from severe rainfall events; however, natural causes, including volcanic eruptions and algae blooms from natural causes constitute a minute amount of the... More »
Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Volume 1: Current State and Trends: Air Quality and ClimateLast Updated on 2014-11-17 12:15:25
This is Chapter 13 of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment report Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Volume 1: Current State and Trends
Coordinating Lead Authors: Jo House, Victor Brovkin
Lead Authors: Richard Betts, Bob Constanza, Maria Assunçao Silva Dias, Beth Holland, Corinne Le Quéré, Nophea Kim Phat, Ulf Riebesell, Mary Scholes
Contributing Authors: Almut Arneth, Damian Barratt, Ken Cassman, Torben Christensen, Sarah Cornell, Jon Foley, Laurens Ganzeveld, Thomas Hickler, Sander Houweling, Marko Scholze, Fortunat Joos, Karen Kohfeld, Manfredi Manizza, Denis Ojima, I. Colin Prentice, Crystal Schaaf, Ben Smith, Ina Tegen, Kirsten Thonicke, Nicola Warwick
Review Editors: Pavel Kabat, Shuzo Nishioka
Ecosystems, both natural and managed, exert a strong influence on climate and air quality. Ecosystems are both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases,... More »
Climate adaptationLast Updated on 2014-11-17 12:07:20
The global climate disruptions underway require two types of responses. Both the Stern Review (2007) and the IPCC Climate Change (2007) point out that strong action on climate change, includes both mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC uses the following definitions: Mitigation: An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (IPCC, 2001); Adaptation: Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC, 2001). From these definitions it follows that mitigation reduces all impacts (positive and negative) of climate change and thus reduces the adaptation challenge, whereas adaptation is selective; it can take advantage of positive impacts and reduce negative ones.
The former, climate change mitigation, is the more widely... More »
Climate Literacy- The Essential Principles of Climate SciencesLast Updated on 2014-11-15 15:52:27
View online here or download the PDF: High Resolution (14.67MB) or Low Resolution (2.92MB)
If you would like more detailed coverage of this topic please see The Climate Literacy Handbook
Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence of climate and climate's influence on you and society.
understands the essential principles of Earth's climate system,
knows how to assess scientifically credible information about climate,
communicates about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and
is able to make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate.
During the 20th century, Earth's globally averaged surface temperature rose by approximately 1.08°F (0.6°C). Additional warming of more than 0.25°F (0.14°C) has been measured since 2000. Though the total increase may seem small, it... More »
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