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    The advent of agriculture ushered in an unprecedented increase in the human population and their domesticated animals. Farming catalyzed the transformation of hunter-gatherers... More »

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    Europa Island located in the southern Mozambique Channel, between Madagascar and Mozambique. Europa Island is about 100 kilometers (km) southeast of Bassas da... More »

  • Composting Featured Article Composting Composting

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Recently Updated
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Last Updated on 2014-04-16 19:25:30 Like many of the region's lowland forests, the Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests ecoregion has been intensively cultivated and its forests converted over hundreds of years. As a consequence, most of the region's biodiversity has been extirpated, and because of political forces over the past few decades very little current information on the biodiversity status of this ecoregion is known. This ecoregion is located within the Irrawaddy River Basin, the catchments of Bago Yoma, and the foothills of Rakhine Yoma. The soils belong to the Irrawaddian series, which consists of the fluvial sands with terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate fossils. Silicified wood fossils are found among ferruginous, calcareous, and siliceous concretions, with quartz pebbles. The Irrawaddian rocks are distinct from other Tertiary rock groups. Their occurrence reaches up to the Kachin State in the... More »
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Last Updated on 2014-04-16 18:29:56 In 1929 the Burma Game Manual stated its guiding principle: "A countryside devoid of wildlife is uninteresting and unnatural, and life under such conditions can adversely affect the national character." Therefore, invaluable natural and national assets had to be saved from destruction. This has not happened in large portions of Myanmar, especially the fertile lands of the Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forest. Most of the ecoregion's original forests, and subsequent wildlife such as Asian elephants and tigers, have been destroyed. Protection of the last remaining bits of habitat and restoration ecology will be key elements of returning this ecoregion to its natural state. The Irrawaddy River flows into the Bay of Bengal, and its delta is made up of mangroves and freshwater swamp forests of this ecoregion. This ecoregion is an extremely fertile area because of the... More »
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Last Updated on 2014-04-16 18:06:26 The Greater Negros-Panay Rain Forests ecoregion, including the Western Visayas and parts of additional political regions, appears as a number of isolated islands, but during the last ice ages these islands were (for the most part) part of one continuous island. The islands contain a unique mix of Sundaic and Philippine mammals and birds, including leopard cats and endemic pigs and deer species. Sibuyan, a small mountainous island surrounded by deep water, contains five endemic mammals and several restricted-range birds and nearly qualifies as an ecoregion in itself. The ecoregion includes the large island of Negros, Panay, and Cebu and the smaller islands of Masbate, Ticao, and Guimaras; Sibuyan, Romblon, Tablas, and Siquijor are moderately isolated and distinctive. The climate of the ecoregion is tropical wet. The Visayas receive approximately 2,419 millimeters (mm) of... More »
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Last Updated on 2014-04-16 17:48:48 The Eastern Java-Bali Rain Forests are found on one of the most actively volcanic islands in the world. Once the home of the extinct Javan and Balinese tigers (Panthera tigris sondaicus and Panthera tigris balica, respectively), these forests still contain one of the most endangered and high-profile songbirds in the world, the Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi). Almost all of this ecoregion's natural habitat was cleared long ago by logging interests and for agriculture and settlements to provide for a rapidly expanding, dense human population. Only tiny fragments of natural forests remain, and these are also disturbed. This ecoregion represents the lowland moist forests of eastern Java and Bali in the Indonesian Archipelago. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical wet and dry climate zones, although as one moves east on Java... More »
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Last Updated on 2014-04-16 15:53:31 The Eastern Java-Bali Montane Rain Forests are found on one of the most actively volcanic islands in the world. Once the home of the extinct Javan and Balinese tigers (Panthera tigris sundaica and Panthera tigris balica, respectively), they contain fifteen bird species found nowhere else on Earth and more than 100 mammal species. Nearly three-quarters of the ecoregion's natural habitat has been cleared by a rapidly expanding population that is increasingly forced into these marginal lands. This ecoregion represents the montane forests of eastern Java and Bali, Indonesia. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical wet and dry climate zones. Java probably did not exist before the Miocene (24 million years ago). Bali did not emerge until 3 million years ago. Truly born of fire, the islands of Java and Bali are the result of the... More »