This is a part of the Howard T. Odum Collection
1940-43 Published breeding bird censuses on North Carolina ecosystems as part of Audubon Society and North Carolina Bird Club.
1944 Developed energy organizational concepts during Tropical Meteorology course of University of Chicago in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, with emphasis on concepts of convergence and divergence and introduction to rain forest.
1945 Research on tropical air mass characteristics, produced a teaching manual and cloud mappings of the Intertropical Convergence Zone while instructor in U.S. Army Air Force Tropical Weather School, Howard Field, Canal Zone.
1947-50 Ph.D. work with Evelyn Hutchinson, Yale University; dissertation: The Biogeochemistry of Strontium, with the first calculations of the global budgets of the major element, and evidence from strontium constancy in fossils for a steady state ocean chemistry since the Paleozoic; honorable mention for AAAS prize (Life magazine, 1950; published in Science 1951).
1948 Graduate assistant to David Frey, studies on Singletary Lake, North Carolina, extreme oligotrophy in the elongated "bay" lakes; later published a map of Pleistocene winds based on bay lake orientations and atmospheric pressure height calculations.
1948 and 1966 Published x-ray crystallography of amorphous nudibranch spicules, day minerals in lakes, and proof of celestite Acantharian radiolaria.
1950-54 Office of Naval Research Springs Project as Assistant Professor, teaching Limnology, in Biology Department at the University of Florida, Gainesville; developed the diurnal curve method of measuring productivity in waters; measured the energy hierarchy of Silver Springs ecosystems; with Jim Yount related diversity to productivity. Conducted experiments relating invasion of marine animals in Florida waters to chloride concentrations in ground waters; mapped phosphorus in Florida waters correlated with phosphate geology and wastes; with Nelson Marshall measured nutrient levels associated with red tides; with Richard Pinkerton derived the speed regulator principle (optimum efficiency for maximum power); with W.C. Allee developed a differential equation model for prevalence of cooperation in animal populations.
1953 Collaborated with E.P. Odum on textbook: "Fundamentals of Ecology," helping with organization to include new ecological concepts from Yale and provided chapters on energy and population. The promised "With collaboration" phrase was left off the first edition title page but restored on the second edition.
1954 Principal investigator on Atomic Energy Commission project on complex structure and high metabolism of Coral Reef at Eniwetok with E.P. Odum as assistant--given George Mercer Award by Ecological Society of America.
1954-56 National Science Foundation Microcosm Project at Duke University developed flowing stream microcosm, its energetics, diversity, chlorophyll-carotenoid response to nutrients, contribution of physical current velocity, nutrient control of succession and steady states. Made comparative measurement of photosynthesis and respiratory metabolism of farm ponds, small rivers, and estuarine ponds with free-water measurements.
1959 Chief instructor, summer ecology course at Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, with emphasis on photosynthesis/respiration ratio for classification of ecosystem metabolism.
1957 Projects of three government agencies on metabolism of Texas Bays, as Director of The University of Texas Institute of Marine Science; with collaboration of other scientists and students measured high productivity and low diversity of hypersaline water, stimulation of productivity by current and the outfalls of nutrient wastes; used floating plastic chamber to estimate atmospheric reaeration, used drop nets from pilings and helicopter for estimating estuarine populations, correlated low diversity zooplankton with pollution, constructed floating buoys for recording diurnal measurements; measured synchrony (instead of lag) of consumption and production in marine bays of Texas; with D. Hood and K. Park measured the phosphorus cycle; with P. Parker measured the trace element cycles in fiberglass enclosures in the field; with Ron Wilson, the first perchloric acid digestion for determining organic matter; found organic matter deposited inverse to species diversity.
1957-59 At a time when ecology of land and water were rarely related, Rockefeller project was obtained for comparing productivity and metabolism of land and water ecosystems; work included hot springs, rain forest, coral reefs and mangroves in Puerto Rico, and with W. McFarland, kelp in California.
1957-63 National Science Foundation Microcosm Project was continued in Texas with concrete enclosures simulating grass flats, oyster reefs, and blue-algal mats of the hypersaline bays. Construction of first passive electrical analogs for ecosystems was made on the principle of electrical current representing circulation of carbon and other nutrient materials-developed the Force and Flux concept from open system thermodynamics for ecosystems; operated chemical microcosms simulating Goldschmidt concept of origin of the ocean from acids and basalt. Demonstrated living photoelectric ecosystem using blue green algal mat cores published with Neal Armstrong; with R.J. Beyers developed method of calibrating diurnal pH with photosynthesis using a graph produced by titrating with carbon-dioxide water; showed self regulating homeostasis in microcosms adapted in growth chamber not increasing metabolism with temperature; simulation model of diurnal metabolism showing very high gross production and tight recycle, but small net production where nutrients are small as in tropical plankton. Assisted self organization with multiple seeding was generalized by defining the new field "ecological engineering" for interface of technological economy and nature.
1957-1970 Started Luquillo rain forest systems ecology program first as Rockefeller project from Texas and then in 1963 with Atomic Energy Commission (later Dept. of Energy) Rain Forest Radiation Project of Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. Set the pattern for whole ecosystem study later adapted by Hubbard Brook staff who visited during their initial organization. Final results were in 1600 page book including the normal structure, metabolism, biogeochemistry, climate and microclimate, diversity, populations, growth rates, and models followed by the effects of a 10,000 Curie Cesium radiation source operated in the forest for 90 days. Study included radioactive fallout in Luquillo and other tropical forests related to transpiration potentials and root types. Operated a giant plastic cylinder, 60 feet high, flushed by large fan measuring metabolism of whole rain forest for comparison with that calculated from the small scale measurements. The site and initial study later became the basis for the National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research Site in the Luquillo Rain Forest.
In later study in Puerto Rico with Martin Munroe modeled and simulated the Joyuda estuarine lagoons diurnal, oscillatory, and annual processes of ecosystem and populations. Received Distinguished Service Award of the University of Puerto Rico (Center for Energy and Environment).
1963-1978 As an outgrowth of using electrical analog symbols for systems modeling, a general energy systems language of symbols with rigorous energy and mathematical definitions was initiated as a general methodology for translating human verbal concepts through network diagrams to equations for simulation--now used worldwide. Simulation of populations and ecosystems was done first with passive analogs, then with standard operational analog computers, then with hybrid computer, and then with microcomputers starting with the pre-Apple Intercolor-compucolor. Concept of minimodels started in which simplicity was retained with aggregation of whole system rather than by analytical separation.
1966-70 Continued microcosm studies: with Scott Nixon metabolism of brine microcosms and analog simulation showed rhodopsin photorespiration in pink Halophilic bacteria before it was found by physiologists. Generalized principle of energy-driven destruction-recycle where consumption part of ecosystem cycle is limited by environmental factors. With Mike Canoy generalized DNA distribution in microcosms and large ecosystems. With Bob Kelly showed the adaptive self organization of microcosms to varying temperature.
1969-71 Offered an energy systems method of classifying ecosystems according to whatever influences are energetically dominant (maximum embodied power), and implemented the classification for the United States first as a project of Federal Water Pollution Control Agency (later EPA) which was republished by Conservation Foundation.
1967-71 Starting with analysis of agricultural systems for the President's Science Advisory Council, and then in a best-selling book "Environment, Power and Society," embodied energy analysis methods were introduced for understanding and deriving public policy for systems of humanity and nature generally. Limitations were shown to many proposed alternative energy sources including oil shale and solar technologies. The tabular equivalence of network representation of the counter current of money and forward current of materials in ecosystems was shown which was the basis for the later development of input-output energy analysis. By showing the relationships of energy and money a new field of ecological economics was defined. Caused the net energy concept to become a national concern (News Week magazine) and introduced as a congressional law to prevent waste through Senator Mark Hatfield. Testimony before congress showed a net embodied energy loss to the billion dollar plans for oil shale synfuels, but this was ignored and the projects failed.
1972-83 Energy systems modeling was further generalized in a series of papers with mathematical equivalents, offered for impact statements, connected with mathematical models in other fields, with application to systems of biochemical through astronomical scale culminating in the large book "Ecological and General Systems" (first printed as "Systems Ecology") that also introduced model simulations showing the pulsing paradigm to replace the steady state concept of sustainability.
1976 In response to the Prize of the Institute de la Vie, the energy hierarchy concept as an energy law for all systems was formalized by defining the transformity (first called energy transformation ratio).
1967-71 Experimental Sea Grant-NSF project of the University of North Carolina Marine Institute at Morehead City, NC compared systems ecology of marsh ponds receiving treated sewage with control ponds. Multiple seeding was used to generate rapid self organization of high metabolism, low diversity, channelized production. This ecological engineering program of 15 faculty and students led next to the cypress wetland wastewater recycling projects in Florida (below) now a worldwide practice.
1972-1980 Organized a national Rockefeller sponsored workshop on wastewaters and wetlands in Gainesville in 1972 after which a million dollar project of NSF and the Rockefeller Foundation set up cypress swamp experiments for treated wastewaters in Gainesville Florida. The Center for Wetlands of the University of Florida was founded. The group ecosystem project included phases on ground water, geological history, forest metabolism and growth, aquatic metabolism, biogeochemical cycles, animal populations, diversity, microbiology, virus, economic evaluations, computer simulation, and fire. Comparative studies were made in other kinds of swamps and a summary book published in 1978.
1975-80 Florida Landscape Ecology and Management projects of the Center for Wetlands preceded national policy for ecosystem management by two decades. In collaboration with Mark Brown and many others the dominant energy approach to ecosystem classification and management was applied to recommend ecosystem management of Florida landscape through projects of the Department of Interior by Secretary Nat Reed implemented by George Gardner in collaboration with the Florida State Division of Planning. A third of the counties of Florida were ecosystem mapped in detail. The south Florida project included the Kissimmee basin, Everglades and the Florida Keys. Energy evaluations were used to recommend policies. Popular booklets were prepared for three counties.
The Green Swamp and Big Cypress studies showed that proposed removal of small pond cypress would reduce water availability because of the low transpiration and high reflectance of the pond cypress. A series of studies was made of the spectral reflectance with LYCOR scanner to characterize the energy-water characteristics of the vegetation of Florida. A study of the atmospheric and aquatic microclimate above Everglades wetland showed the role of thin water depth evaporation in stimulating rain. A plan was published to solve Everglades pollution by redeveloping a strip of wetland for reabsorption, a recommendation now being adopted. A model was made showing the need for restoring the Kissimmee River floodplain so that northern waters arrive filtered and later in the year, a procedure also being implemented.
1976, 1982 With an Erskine Fellowship awarded by the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand (on sabbatical), lectures and short courses started energy systems evaluations of New Zealand by the Joint Centre for Environment, using overview modeling, embodied energy analysis and minimodel simulation, including fuel and hydroelectric power resources, ecosystems, pine plantations, geothermal power, aluminum industry, and national trade policies. With Elisabeth C. Odum developed a systems ecology teaching booklet which was used in New Zealand schools. Collaboration was started with George Knox with a joint National Science Foundation U.S.A.-New Zealand project for 1982 showing the benefits of exotic invasion of Spartina Anglica on mudflats. Emergy evaluation of Levy County, Florida and its coastal marshes followed gas flow measurements of photosynthetic productivity with D.A. Hornbeck.
1976-87 Energy Analysis Projects of the Center included preparation of a manual for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Energy analysis studies were completed for a dozen Florida Counties. Environmental loading was measured with energy analysis of the Everglades Park and its uses. An optimum use was measured for maximum benefit from parks. Results were summarized in a book "Energy Basis for Man and Nature" which had two editions. In IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) in summer 1983 formal procedure of energy evaluation was made for nations and their trade with initial application to 11 countries. With David Scienceman and M.T. Brown, the terms Emergy spelled with an "m," transformity, and empower were defined to avoid confusing terminology involved with "embodied energy."
Studies followed on many countries demonstrating the inequitable way free trade was stripping real wealth from rural areas in exchange for money with much less in real wealth buying power.
Emergy based policies were developed during sabbatical year as visiting professor at the L.B.J. School of Public Affairs of The University of Texas-Austin, with drafts of a book for teaching which was published in 1996 as "Environmental Accounting, Emergy and Decision Making." Emergy evaluations were published of Texas and its agriculture.
1985-92 Presentations at the International Systems Science Society (in preprint volumes) compared hierarchy of ecosystems and political systems, the role of destruction and war, comparisons with psychological systems, the role of shared information replacing power politics, and a simulation of evolution of taxa. As President of the society in 1992, organized Denver meeting on ecological economics and edited a yearbook summarizing the general systems contributions of the society. Organized energy systems symposia for 1998 meeting.
1976-1995 Started a new field, emergy analysis of history, showing high transformity imports by colonists changing human ways in Florida in its colonial period; in collaboration with R. Sundberg showed the basis of Swedish power in Europe in the 17th century traced to silver mining, forest products, charcoal, steel and ships. Dissertation by Bob Woithe showed emergy basis for slavery, the U.S. Civil war, its foreign interactions, and the transformity of weapons in the Battle of Gettysburg.
1984-1993 With a long project of the Cousteau Society emergy evaluations were made of those areas of conservation controversy where Cousteau Films were being made. In collaboration with Mark Brown and students, evaluations of appropriate values and alternatives included the Amazon and the great Jari development, Papua New Guinea, Mississippi River, the Sea of Cortez and the Nairit coast of Mexico. Evaluation of the Valdez Oil Spill showed amplification by television information caused more value to be wasted in reaction than was in the original damage. With Steven Olsen, an Agency for International Development project from Narragansett Rhode Island evaluated emergy of shrimp aquaculture of Ecuador showing large negative drains on the coastal zone and the Ecuador economy.
1987-98 Emergy evaluation of watersheds that started with the Mississippi River study with Craig Diamond showed the downstream increase of energy hierarchy and transformity and was followed by emergy evaluations of Coweeta watershed of North Carolina and Brazilian watersheds by S. Romitelli showing the geopotential work in mountains setting up dispersal and use of chemical potential values of water in floodplains, distributaries and estuaries. Evaluations of Luquillo watershed of Puerto Rico with Fred Scatena, S. Doherty, and other students were used in public planning for water use and other impact on the Luquillo Forest. With Tim Keitt large scale hierarchy and diversity was studied from satellite tapes. With T. Weber self organization and succession of the Rain Forest was modeled spatially and temporally.
1985-95 In a series of papers emergy evaluation was extended to information and diversity, first using rain forest examples, evaluation of the University of Florida, evolutionary taxa, the relationship of short term and long term memory, and emdollar evaluation of species diversity.
1990-1998 Object oriented blocks were programmed for Energy Systems symbols for automatic simulation with the program EXTEND so that the user does not have to write equations. The library of symbol blocks GENSYS was made available on PC and Macintosh. Developed in collaboration with the educational group at Beloit College, versions called "Environmental Decision Making" were included in the commercial CD software BioQUEST. Later versions included an overview simulation of Earth metabolism EARTHSYS and a comparison model for Biosphere 2 (SIM-BI02).
1990 On Odum 65th birthday, a symposium was held in Chapel Hill, NC by 75 former students and associates and the results published by University Press of Colorado as a festschrift book "Maximum Power" edited by C.A.S. Hall.
1989-95 Emergy evaluation of China and Taiwan, rice and forests, and Tibet with visiting scholars Shu-Li Huang, Shengfang Lan and Maochao Yan and lecture tour in Universities in Taipei, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Shenyang, China. Our introductory book and "Systems Ecology" were translated into Chinese.
1991-98 Emergy evaluations were made of Korea and simulation models of its economy with visiting Professor Suk Mo Lee, Pusan University, doctoral dissertation of Daeseok Kang on pulsing, and translation of "Systems Ecology" by Prof. Seok S. Park, Korean Woman's University.
1991-98 Emergy evaluations of resources, alternative energy, and biogeochemical cycles were developed further with joint work with University of Siena, Italy collaborating with Sergio Ulgiati and Enzo Tiezzi. Concepts were presented in two workshops in Italy, in presentations at the Energy Agency of Italy in Rome, and with evaluations of the Italian economy and agriculture.
1993-1998 With evidences from P. Keller's thesis study on pulp mill wastewaters in wetlands, recommendations and law suit testimony was made to remove paper wastes from rivers and estuaries of Florida and return them to headwater pinelands to conserve waters, restore the small upland wetlands and protect forests from excessive drought.
1993-96 Project on energy analysis of cities of the Chung Hsing Foundation with Shu-Li Huang and Mark Brown comparing Asiatic and American cities. Study included thesis by Douglas Whitfleld on Jacksonville with mapping of empower densities and transformities that increase to the centers especially in information concentrations; evolution of urban structure by simulation of models with a storage for each urban zone from wilderness to central business district. Florida State Department of Energy project emergy evaluation of transportation alternatives showed some limits to hydrogen, solar cars, and unnecessary horsepower for prosperous economy.
1958-98 Based on the high stability found with multiple-seeded, self organized ecological microcosms, proposals and pressures were unsuccessfully applied to NASA over a thirty year period to use the complex ecosystem approach to life support in space (instead of the failed population and agricultural low diversity regimes). With initiative of former student Robert Beyers, a book summary of the extensive microcosm literature was published including microcosms containing humans. A contract was arranged with the private developers of Biosphere 2, and models were used to show how self-organization and homeostasis was developing, similar in many ways to planet Earth, both adapting to an excess of respiration and carbon-dioxide. Now co-editing the special issue of Ecological Engineering forthcoming from Elsevier as a book to help get more of the Biosphere studies into scientific literature.
1987-98 A pattern of teaching modeling and simulation of minimodels of environment, economy, and global was formalized with texts and software, a National Science Foundation workshop for Teachers, publication of a version of the text by the United Nations Environmental Program, a Chinese translation published in Beijing, a full version in Portuguese and Spanish on the Web from Campinas in Sao Paolo, a version combined with regional environmental science in recently published book "Environment and Society in Florida" (Lewis Publ.), and a general version "Modeling for all Scales" contracted with Academic Press.
1987-98 With the help of Crafoord Prize money ecological economics was developed further with a formal ecological economics course using dynamic simulation of micro and macroeconomic minimodels. A new Center for Environmental Policy was established within Environmental Engineering Sciences. With Carol Boggess in a later GIS dissertation, a new field, the biogeoeconomics of phosphorus, was defined while evaluating ecologic economic alternatives for dairies and other land uses in the Kissimmee basin. In 1998, for the third time, proposals were sent to foundations to develop a compendium book of transformities to make emergy evaluations documented and easy, also further establishing the positions of things in the universal energy hierarchy.
1982-98 A book manuscript "The Prosperous Way Down" originally written in 1982 considered the ecological economics of global society and suggested policies after the fossil fuels become scarce and expensive. First written for a trade book, but not finding a publisher, it was twice rewritten and finally contracted with University Press of Colorado and manuscript submitted that included general systems basis for anticipating the future. In 1998 John Wiley initiated plans for revision of "Environment, Power and Society."