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# Bernoulli, Daniel

This article has been reviewed by the following Topic Editor: Tom Lawrence

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), a Dutch-born mathematician, spent much of his life in Basel, Switzerland. He is known for his seminal theoretical contributions to the field of aerodynamics. Bernoulli's Principle is a statement of the conservation of energy for a steady, non-viscous, incompressible flow without friction or other irreversible effects. It states that in fluid flow, an increase in velocity happens simultaneously with decrease in pressure, i.e., velocity is greatest and pressure lowest at a point of constriction. This equation is used as a basic design principle in hydraulic systems, such as liquid piping networks, and is shown below.

In this equation: the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to conditions of the fluid at points 1 and 2 within the system; P is fluid pressure; v is the fluid specific volume; V is the fluid velocity; g is the gravitational constant; and z is the elevation above a reference point.

His chief work is Hydrodynamique (Hydrodynamica), published in 1738, which is organized around the principle of the conservation of energy.

## Citation

Cutler J. Cleveland (Lead Author);Tom Lawrence (Topic Editor) "Bernoulli, Daniel". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth September 27, 2006; Last revised Date September 27, 2006; Retrieved May 21, 2013 <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bernoulli,_Daniel>

## The Author

Cutler J. Cleveland  is Professor of Earth and Environment at Boston University, where he also is on the faculty of the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. Professor Cleveland is Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Energy (Elsevier, 2004), winner of an American Library Association award, the Dictionary of Energy (Elsevier, 2005), Handbook of Energy (Elsevier, forthcoming), and is the Founding Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Earth.  He is the recipient of the Adelma ... (Full Bio)