Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918), a German physicist, shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909 with Guglielmo Marconi for the development of wireless telegraphy. Braun’s early work was in the field of electricity where he published papers on deviations from Ohm's Law and electromotive forces. He invented what is now called Braun's electrometer, and a cathode-ray oscillograph, constructed in 1897. Braun improved Marconi's transmitting system by devising a sparkless antenna circuit (patented in 1899) that linked transmitter power to the antenna circuit inductively. This invention greatly increased the broadcasting range of a transmitter and was subsequently used in radar, radio, and television applications.