Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), an Italian artist, engineer, and scientist, generally regarded as one of most prolific geniuses in history. Da Vinci was one of the most influential artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. His diversity of excellence made him an internationally renowned inventor, scientist, engineer, architect, painter, sculptor, musician, mathematician, anatomist, astronomer, geologists, biologist, and philosopher in his time. Da Vinci is well-known for his masterful paintings, such as The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa. He is also known for his many inventions that, although incredibly innovative for the time, were never appreciated until after his death. These inventions included flying machines, parachutes, submarines, pumping mechanisms, water turbines, steam calorimeters, leveling/surveying instruments, pulley systems, street-lighting systems, compasses, contact lenses, and military weapons. Da Vinci identified muscles and nerves of cadavers, understood components of force vectors, friction coefficients, and acceleration of falling objects, which he used to describe the mechanics of the human body during rest and various activities.
Leonardo da Vinci - Biography (University of St. Andrews, Scotland, School of Mathematics and Statistics)
Leonardo da Vinci: Scientist, Inventor, Artist (Museum of Science, Boston)
Leonardo da Vinci Museum