- Reader's Guide
- Summary for Decision-makers
- Key Questions in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
- How have ecosystems changed?
- How have ecosystem services and their uses changed?
- How have ecosystem changes affected human well-being and poverty alleviation?
- What are the most critical factors causing ecosystem changes?
- How might ecosystems and their services change in the future under various plausible scenarios?
- What can be learned about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being at sub-global scales?
- What is known about time scales, inertia, and the risk of nonlinear changes in ecosystems?
- What options exist to manage ecosystems sustainably?
- What are the most important uncertainties hindering decision-making concerning ecosystems?
- Appendix A. Ecosystem Service Reports
- Appendix B. Effectiveness of Assessed Responses
- Appendix C. Authors, Coordinators, and Review Editors
- Appendix D. Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Figure Sources
- Appendix E. Assessment Report Tables of Contents
Disclaimer: This chapter is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally written for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as published by the World Resources Institute. The content has not been modified by the Encyclopedia of Earth.