Benoît Fourneyron (1802-1867), a French inventor who, at the age of 25, invented the first enclosed water turbine or reaction turbine of modern design. It was called a reaction turbine because of its design: a chamber containing an inner ring of rotor-blades that repel water outward against the moving vanes of a “runner,” which were curved in the opposite direction from the inner blades, thus reversing the flow of water within the device itself and producing the so-called reactive force. Fourneyron’s turbine benefited France’s bourgeoning industry, and it's use quickly spread to other countries. As a power source, the water turbine had many advantages over the open vertical water wheel. The water turbine could handle any head from less than a foot up to many hundreds of feet, its conversion efficiency was much higher, and it could handle much more water flow. Fourneyron went on to build more than 1,000 hydraulic turbines of various forms and for use in different parts of the world, including Niagara Falls, USA.