Jules Henri Giffard (1825-1882), French inventor who achieved the first powered and controlled flight in history. He flew in a craft that was a primitive example of the dirigible or semi-rigid airship. The hydrogen-filled airship was 43 meters (144 feet) long, had a 2,200-Watt (3-horsepower) steam engine that drove a three-bladed propeller, and was steered using a sail-like rudder. It flew at an average speed of 5 kph (3 mph) over a distance of about 27 kilometers (17 miles). In 1858, he patented a steam injector that became widely used in locomotives and other types of steam engines. Giffard's inventions were successful, and he acquired a fortune from their sale.