Irving Langmuir (1881-1957), an American physicist and chemist, developed modern surface chemistry and the theory of adsorption catalysis. He discovered monomolecular films with specific molecular orientation at surfaces and promoted understanding of plasmas, heat transfer, and thermionic phenomena, and invented a high-vacuum electron tube and gas-filled incandescent lamp. Langmuir received the 1932 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry, the first non-academic chemist to receive the Prize.
- Nobel Foundation. Irving Langmuir - Biography.
- Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Lighting a Revolution: Irving Langmuir.