United States Congress passed the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994 in an attempt to prevent nations without nuclear weapon capabilities from obtaining such technology. It also aimed to prevent both aboveground and underground nuclear weapons-testing worldwide. Any nation found performing tests with nuclear weapons or assisting a non-nuclear weapons nation by aiding their efforts to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire any nuclear explosive material or device, would come under sanctions. Sanctions imposed upon a country could include cutting off all U.S. assistance, banning any financial relations, and establishing stringent licensing rules on commercial exports and imports.
In May of 1998, India and Pakistan performed underground nuclear weapon testing, bringing about the enforcement of U.S. sanctions. However, after a few months, both countries agreed to stop testing and the U.S. arranged to relax some of the sanctions. After the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush approved the lifting of all sanctions.
- U.S. Department of State, Foreign Press Center. Issue Brief for Congress: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Issues. (PDF)
- The Library of Congress. Bill to Provide Authority to Control Exports, and for Other Purposes.