Lee Schipper, an American astrophysicist and pioneer in the analysis of energy end use. Schipper published a seminal study in 1976 that compared energy use in the U.S and Sweden, which demonstrated the differences in the delivery of energy services between the two nations. He performed many of the first international comparisons of energy use by end use sector (industry, transportation, households) and developed indicators of economy-wide energy use and carbon emissions. He had a particular interest in the structural, economic, and behavioral determinants of energy use in transportation. Schipper has held numerous positions at various institutions, including the Shell Foundation, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).