The Seram rain forests are part of the region known as Wallacea, which contains a very distinctive fauna representing a mix of Asian and Australasian species. This small island ecoregion contains sixteen bird species, including a monotypic bird genus, that are found nowhere else on Earth. Nearly a fifth of the original forest cover has been cleared, mostly along the northern coast. However, large areas of contiguous, intact forest still exist, and the conservation status of this ecoregion is relatively stable.
Location and General Description
This ecoregion represents the semi-evergreen and moist forests of Seram and associated islands in the easternmost section of the Indonesian Archipelago. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical wet climate zone. Seram is part remnant crustal fragment, probably from the Australian continent, and part of the volcanic Inner Banda Arc. Consequently, the surface geology of Seram is complex, consisting of older metamorphic schists and gneiss, younger volcanics, and recent alluvium. The interior of the island is mountainous, with several ranges reaching more than 1,000 meters (m). The highest point on the island is the 3,027-m Merkele ridge.
The natural vegetation of Seram is tropical lowland evergreen, semi-evergreen, and montane rain forest. Semi-evergreen rain forest with trees that reach 30 m or more is a predominant forest type in this ecoregion. Rattans that exceed 100 m can be found in mature forests. The middle and lower layers include representatives of the Amaryllidaceae, sedges, and large ferns Angiopteris and Marattia, as well as climbers such as Freycinetia, Gnetum, Mucuna, Bauhinia, Piper, and Smilax. Most of the remaining dipterocarp forests are dominated by the endemic Shorea selanica, which can represent about 30 percent of the individual trees and 76 percent of the basal area in the forest. Also common are Anisoptera thurifera, Hopea gregaria, H. iriana, H. novoguineensis, Shorea assamica, S. montigena, S. selanica, and Vatica rassak.
This ecoregion also contains patches of ultrabasic rocks. The forests on these soils generally are poor in species, low, and shrubby. Tertiary limestone outcrops occur in the lowlands and on many mountains such as the Murkele Ridge and the top ridge of the central Mt. Binaiya, Seram's highest mountain.
In Seram's montane forests, the Fagaceae are represented by only two species. Castanopsis buruana dominates between 400 and 1,400 m above sea level, where individuals tend to clump together, and Lithocarpus celebicus is found along ridges. Above 2,400 m on Mt. Binaiya, a low, open scrubby woodland contains Dacrydium spp., Myrica spp., Rapanea spp., Rhamnus spp., Rhododendron spp., and Vaccinium spp. Tree ferns are also important and include Cyathea binayana and C. pukuana, which form distinctive groves that support many epiphytic ferns. Pockets of this tree-fern savanna extend to the summit along with low Vaccinium woodland. At the highest points, from 2,700 to 3,000 m above sea level, grassland dominates and is characterized by several endemic herbs such as Viola binayensis, Pterostylis papuanum, and Euphrasia ceramensis.
The overall richness and endemism of this ecoregion are low to moderate when compared with those of other ecoregions in Indo-Malaya. The islands are part of Wallacea, a unique region that supports a mixture of Asian and Australian fauna.
The montane area of Seram supports the greatest number of endemic mammals of any island in the region. The ecoregion harbors thirty-eight mammal species and includes nine species that are endemic or near endemic (Table 1), several of which are limited to montane habitats. The Seram flying-fox (Pteropus ocularis) and spiny Seram rat (Melomys feliceus) are considered vulnerable. The mammals found on Seram include Asian species (Murid rodents) as well as Australasian marsupials.
The ecoregion harbors more than 213 bird species, of which 33 are endemic or near endemic (Table 2). The ecoregion corresponds to the Seram Endemic Bird Area (EBA). The EBA contains thirty restricted-range species, including fourteen that are found nowhere else on Earth. Five species are threatened. The vulnerable Moluccan scrubfowl (Megapodius wallacei) is also found on Buru and Halmahera. The remaining four species are found nowhere else: the endangered black-chinned monarch (Monarcha boanensis) and vulnerable salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis), purple-naped lory (Lorius domicella), and lazuli kingfisher (Todirhamphus lazuli). The bicoloured white-eye (Tephrozosterops stalkeri), the sole member of its genus, is also found only on Seram. The fourteen endemic restricted-range birds can be divided into three groups: five species found generally in lowland forests (below 1,000 m), three species found in montane forests above 1,000 m, and six species found in both lowland and montane habitats. The ecoregion also harbors the largest bird in the Moluccas, the two-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius).
|Table 1. Endemic and Near-Endemic Mammal Species.|
|An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion.|
|Table 2. Endemic and Near-Endemic Bird Species.|
|Accipitridae||Rufous-necked sparrowhawk||Accipiter erythrauchen|
|Megapodiidae||Forsten's scrubfowl||Megapodius forstenii|
|Megapodiidae||Moluccan scrubfowl||Megapodius wallacei|
|Columbidae||White-eyed imperial-pigeon||Ducula perspicillata|
|Columbidae||Long-tailed mountain-pigeon||Gymnophaps mada|
|Cacatuidae||Salmon-crested cockatoo||Cacatua moluccensis*|
|Loriidae||Red lory||Eos bornea|
|Loriidae||Blue-eared lory||Eos semilarvata*|
|Loriidae||Purple-naped lory||Lorius domicella*|
|Cuculidae||Pied bronze-cuckoo||Chrysococcyx crassirostris|
|Strigidae||Moluccan hawk-owl||Ninox squamipila|
|Tytonidae||Lesser masked-owl||Tyto sororcula|
|Alcedinidae||Lazuli kingfisher||Todirhamphus lazuli*|
|Meliphagidae||Olive honeyeater||Lichmera argentauris|
|Meliphagidae||Seram honeyeater||Lichmera monticola*|
|Meliphagidae||Seram myzomela||Myzomela blasii*|
|Meliphagidae||Wakolo myzomela||Myzomela wakoloensis|
|Meliphagidae||Seram friarbird||Philemon subcorniculatus*|
|Pachycephalida||Drab whistler||Pachycephala griseonota|
|Rhipiduridae||Streaky-breasted fantail||Rhipidura dedemi*|
|Monarchidae||Black-chinned monarch||Monarcha boanensis*|
|Monarchidae||Moluccan flycatcher||Myiagra galeata|
|Oriolidae||Seram oriole||Oriolus forsteni*|
|Campephagidae||Moluccan cuckoo-shrike||Coracina atriceps|
|Campephagidae||Pale-grey cuckoo-shrike||Coracina ceramensis|
|Turdidae||Moluccan thrush||Zoothera dumasi|
|Sturnidae||Long-crested myna||Basilornis corythaix*|
|Muscicapidae||Cinnamon-chested flycatcher||Ficedula buruensis|
|Zosteropidae||Ambon white-eye||Zosterops kuehni*|
|Zosteropidae||Bicoloured white-eye||Tephrozosterops stalkeri*|
|Zosteropidae||Grey-hooded white-eye||Lophozosterops pinaiae*|
|Sylviidae||Chestnut-backed bush-warbler||Bradypterus castaneus|
|Dicaeidae||Ashy flowerpecker||Dicaeum vulneratum|
|An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion.|
Nearly a fifth of the original forest of this ecoregion has been cleared, mostly along the northern coast. However, large areas of contiguous, intact forest still exist. Therefore, the conservation status of this ecoregion is relatively stable. Seven protected areas cover 3,121 square-kilometers (km2) (16 percent) of the ecoregion area, and one-Manusela National Park-is more than 2,000 km2 (Table 3). This last reserve, with a wide range of forest types, conserves the cassowary (Casuarius casuarius). However, wildlife trade has been strong since historical times, and it may threaten some bird species such as the salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis). The Trans-Seram Highway also threatens forest habitat by illegal logging, land clearance, and soil erosion.
|Table 3. WCMC Protected Areas That Overlap with the Ecoregion.|
|Protected Area||Area (km2)||IUCN Category|
|Ecoregion numbers of protected areas that overlap with additional ecoregions are listed in brackets.|
Seram's moist lowland forests are being exploited by logging companies, primarily for their valuable damar trees (Agathis). The best dipterocarp stands were depleted by commercial loggers before the 1950s, and many other species were overexploited by intensive logging in the 1970s.
With no airport and only rudimentary ground transport, Seram is remote. Although this promotes conservation in many ways, it also prevents conservation employees from guarding boundaries, enlisting the support of local people, and conducting biological surveys.
Types and Severity of Threats
The north Seram dipterocarp forests are still dominated by the endemic Shorea selanica and therefore are especially vulnerable to logging. The commercial wildlife trade is another significant threat. Parrots are captured and exported for the pet trade, with many casualties.
Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
The Sula Islands were included within the Sulawesi lowland rain forests and the Aru Islands in the Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests. Buru Island, identified as a distinct subunit (13c) by MacKinnon and as an EBA, was delineated as a distinct ecoregion, the Buru rain forests. Seram, the larger island to the east of Buru, was also delineated as an ecoregion: Seram rain forests. The larger Halmahera rain forests ecoregion includes Obi Island, which MacKinnon recognized as a separate subunit (13b) from Halmahera Island (subunit 13a). We created the Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests by combining the islands in the Kai and Tanimbar archipelagos, which were distinguished as a biogeographic unit by Monk et al. The primary vegetation on the islands in both these archipelagos is moist deciduous forests and semi-evergreen forests, whereas the vegetation in the other, nearby large islands (Seram and Aru) is evergreen rain forests.
Additional information on this ecoregion
- For a shorter summary of this entry, see the WWF WildWorld profile of this ecoregion.
- To see the species that live in this ecoregion, including images and threat levels, see the WWF Wildfinder description of this ecoregion.
- World Wildlife Fund Homepage
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