Geography and Population
India is located in southern Asia and has a total area of almost 3.3 million km2 (Table 1). It is the largest peninsula in the world and the seventh largest country. It is bordered in the northwest by Pakistan, in the north by China, Nepal and Bhutan, and in the northeast by Myanmar and Bangladesh. In the south, it has some 7 600 km of coastline on the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal. The peninsula can be divided into three main regions: peninsular India, located south of the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges; the plains of the Indus (northwest) and Ganges (north and northeast) rivers; and the mountainous terrain of the Himalayas. In addition, the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal are part of the territory of India. For administrative purposes, India is divided into 28 states and 7 union territories. The total cultivable area is estimated at 183 million ha, or over 55 percent of the total area of the country. In 2008, the total cultivated area was estimated at 169 million, of which 158 million ha were annual crops and 11 million ha were permanent crops. While between the early 1960s and the late 1980s the cultivated area increased with 5 percent, since then there has hardly been any increase in cultivated area. However, crop yields have increased significantly (food grain yields more than tripled since 1950) as well as the cropping intensity, which increased from 111 percent in 1950 to 118 in 1970, 130 in 1990 and 135 in 2006.
India has a typical monsoon climate. In this region, surface winds undergo a complete reversal from January to July, and cause two types of monsoon. In winter, dry and cold air from land in the northern latitudes flows southwest (northeast monsoon), while in summer, warm and humid air originates over the ocean and flows in the opposite direction (southwest monsoon), accounting for some 70-95 percent of the annual rainfall. For most parts of India the rainfall occurs under the influence of the southwest monsoon between June and September. However, in the southern coastal areas near the east coast (Tamil Nadu and adjoining areas) much of the rain occurs under the influence of the northeast monsoon during October and November. The average annual rainfall is estimated at 1 170 mm over the country, but varies significantly from place to place. In the northwest desert of Rajasthan, the average annual rainfall is lower than 150 mm/year. In the broad belt extending from Madhya Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu, through parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the average annual rainfall is generally lower than 500 mm/year. At the other extreme, more than 10 000 mm of rain fall on the Khasi hills in the northeast of the country in a short period of four months. On the west coast, in Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh (states located in the northeast) and in sub-Himalayan West Bengal the average annual rainfall is about 2 500 mm.
Except in the northwest of India, the interannual variability of rainfall is relatively low. The main areas affected by severe droughts are Rajasthan and Gujarat.
The year can be divided into four seasons:
- the winter or northeast monsoon: January – February
- the hot season: March – May
- the summer or southwest monsoon: June – September
- the post-monsoon season: October – December
Temperature variations are also marked. During the post-monsoon and winter seasons, from November to February, the temperature decreases from south to north due to the effect of continental winds over most of the country. From March to May, the temperature can increase to some 40°C in the northwest. With the advent of the southwest monsoon in June, there is a rapid fall in the maximum daily temperature, which then remains stable until November. The temperature conditions are suitable for year-round crop production in the whole of India except at higher elevations in the Himalayas.
In 2008, India is the second most populous country in the world, with a total population estimated at 1 181 million inhabitants. In 2008, 833 million inhabitants (almost 71 percent) were living in rural areas. The country’s average population density is estimated at 359 inhabitants /km2, but varies from fewer than 15 inhabitants/km2 in the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh to more than 9 300 inhabitants/km2 in Delhi state. During the period 1998-2008 the average annual growth rate of population is estimated at 1.6 per cent.
In 2008, 88 percent of the population had access to improved water sources (96 and 84 percent in urban and rural areas respectively), but only 31 percent had access to improved sanitation (54 and 21 percent in urban and rural areas respectively).
Economy, agriculture and food security
In 2009, the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was US$1 310 171 million (Table 1). Agriculture accounted for 17 percent of GDP, while in 1999 it represented 25 percent. In 2008, the total economically active population is 472 million, or 40 percent of the total population. The economically active population in agriculture is estimated at 262 million, of which 32 percent is female.
In 2004, about 238 million people constituting 21 percent of total population are assessed to be below poverty line.
The major cereals grown in India are rice, wheat, maize, bajra (spiked millet), barley, jowar (great millet), and ragi. The average yield of food grains (cereals and pulses) increased from 522 kg/ha in 1950 to 1 727 kg/ha in 2003-2004, which means an average annual growth rate of 4.35 percent. The total food grain production in 2006-2007 was almost 212 million tones. The average operational farm size has reduced from 1.57 ha in 1992 to 1.17 ha in 2002.
Water resources and use
India has an annual average precipitation of 1 170 mm and about 80 percent of the total area of the country experiences annual rainfall of 750 mm or more (Table 2). Due to the large spatial and temporal variability in the rainfall, water resources distribution in the country is highly skewed in space, and time.
The two main sources of water in India are rainfall and the snowmelt of glaciers in the Himalayas. Although snow and glaciers are poor producers of freshwater, they are good distributors as they yield at the time of need, in the hot season. Indeed, about 80 percent of the flow of rivers in India occurs during the four to five months of the southwest monsoon season. Several important river systems originate in upstream countries and then flow to other countries: the Indus River originates in China and flows to Pakistan; the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system originates partly in China, Nepal and Bhutan, and flows to Bangladesh; some minor rivers drain into Myanmar and Bangladesh. However, there are no official records available regarding the quantum of annual flows into the country or out of the country.
The rivers of India can be classified into the following four groups:
- The Himalayan rivers (Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus) are formed by melting snow and glaciers as well as rainfall and therefore have a continuous flow throughout the year. As these regions receive very heavy rainfall during the monsoon period, the rivers swell and cause frequent floods.
- The rivers of the Deccan plateau (with larger rivers such as Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Pennar and Cauvery draining into the bay of Bengal in the east, and Narmadi and Tapi draining into the Arabian sea in the west), making up most of the southern-central part of the country, are rainfed and fluctuate in volume, many of them being non-perennial.
- The coastal rivers, especially on the west coast south of the Tapi, are short in length with limited catchment areas, most of them being non-perennial.
- The rivers of the inland drainage basin in western Rajasthan in the north-western part of the country towards the border with Pakistan are ephemeral, drain towards the salt lakes such as the Sambhar, or are lost in the sands.
For planning purposes, the country is divided into 20 river units, 14 of which are major river basins, while the remaining 99 river basins have been grouped into 6 river units, as presented in Table 3. The spatial imbalance of distribution of water resources can be appreciated by the fact that the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin covering 34 percent of the country’s area contributes about 59 percent of the water resources. The west flowing rivers towards the Indus covering 10 percent of area contribute 4 percent of the water resources. The remaining 56 percent of area contributes 37 percent to the runoff.
The water resources potential of the country is assessed as the natural runoff of the rivers and is estimated at 1 864.33 km3, of which only 1 089 km3 are considered as utilizable or exploitable in view of the constraints of topography, uneven distribution of the resource over space and time, the geological factors and the contemporary technological knowledge. These 1 089 km3 comprise 690 km3 from surface water and 399 km3 from groundwater (Figure 1 and Table 3). The internal renewable surface water resources (IRSWR) have been estimated at 1 229.21 km3/year by deducting the inflow from neighbouring countries (210.2 km3/year from Nepal, 347.02 km3/year from China and 78 km3/year from Bhutan) from the total estimated flow of 1 864.33 km3/year. The overlap between surface water and groundwater is considered to be 89 percent.
Under the Indus Water Treaty (1960) between India and Pakistan, all the waters of the eastern tributaries of the Indus River originating in India, i.e. the Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers taken together, shall be available for the unrestricted use of India. All the waters, while flowing in Pakistan, of any tributary which in its natural course joins the Sutlej main or the Ravi main after these rivers have crossed into Pakistan shall be available for the unrestricted use of Pakistan. This flow reserved by treaty is estimated at 11.1 km3/year, which gives a total of 1 858.25 km3/year (=1 869.35-11.1) total actual renewable water resources.
An important part of the surface water resources leaves the country before it reaches the sea: 20 km3/year to Myanmar, 181.37 km3/year to Pakistan and 1 105.6 km3/year to Bangladesh, of which 598.9 km3 through the Brahmaputra, 343.93 km3 through the Ganges and 162.77 km3 through the north-eastern rivers.
In 2004, wastewater production was estimated at 10.585 km3 and the treated wastewater was about 2.555 km3.
No reliable statistics are available on number of desalination plants, their capacities, technologies adopted and status on these plants in India. However, estimates indicate that there are more than 1 000 membrane based desalination plants of various capacities ranging from 20 m3/day to 10 000 m3/day. There are few thermal based desalination plants also. In 1996, some 550 000 m3 of seawater were desalinated in the Lakshadweep Islands, mainly through electro dialysis and reverse osmosis. Solar stills are also installed on the peninsula, as in Gujarat in the northwest. A 6 300 m3/day desalination plant is being set up at Kalpakkam, Chennai with a capacity of 4 500 m3 from Multi Stage Flash (MSF) method, using low pressure steam from Madras Atomic Power Station and 1 800 m3/day from Reverse Osmosis (RO) method. While the Plant with RO method is under operation, the MSF based plant is expected to be commissioned soon.
There are as many as 4 526 large dams and a large number of smaller dams and diversion structures in India. The total water storage capacity constructed up to 2002 was 212.78 km3. Another 76.26 km3 are estimated to be possible through dams under construction and 107.54 through dams under consideration. Seven dams have a reservoir capacity exceeding 8 km3. They are the Nagarjuna Sagar dam on the Krishna River (11.56 km3), the Rihand dam on the Rihand River (10.6 km3), the Bhakra dam on the Sutlej River (9.62 km3), the Srisailam dam on the Krishna River (8.72 km3), the Hirakud dam on the Mahanadi River (8.1 km3), the Pong (Beas) dam on the Beas River (8.57 km3) and the Ukai dam on the Tapti River (8.5 km3).
India controls the flow of the Ganges River through a dam completed in 1974 at Farraka, 18 km from the border with Bangladesh. The Farakka Barrage is is a diversion structure of small height not classified as a large dam.
India is endowed with rich hydropower potential, ranking 5th in the world. The gross hydropower potential was estimated at 148 700 MW as installed capacity, or 84 000 MW at 60 percent power load factor. The Brahamaputra, Ganges and Indus basins contribute about 80 percent of it. In addition to this, small, mini and micro hydropower schemes (with capacity less than 3 MW) have been assessed to have almost 6 782 MW of installed capacity.
It is estimated that in 2010 total water withdrawal is 761 km3 of which 91 percent, or 688 km3, are for irrigation purposes. About 56 km3 are for municipal use and 17 km3 for industrial purposes (Figure 2).
In 2010, primary surface water withdrawal accounted for 396 km3, primary groundwater withdrawal accounted for 251 km3, and reused agricultural drainage water accounted for 113 km3. In 1996, some 550 000 m3 of seawater were desalinated (Table 2 and Figure 3).
In 1990, the total water withdrawal was estimated at 500 km3, of which 92 percent for irrigation purposes. The primary surface water withdrawal was 362 km3, while the amount coming from primary groundwater was estimated at 190 km3.
International water issues
The earlier-mentioned dam at Farraka, 18 km from the border with Bangladesh, was a source of tension between the two countries, with Bangladesh asserting that the dam held back too much water during the dry season and released too much water during monsoon rains. A treaty was signed in December 1996, under which Bangladesh is ensured a fair share of the flow reaching the dam during the dry season.
The Indus Water Treaty (1960) between India and Pakistan, described earlier, helped to resolve the issues between these two countries, although during the last few years Pakistan had objected India for the developments of hydropower projects on the western rivers, Chenab and Jhelum.
Similar arrangements exist between Nepal and India for the exploitation of the Kosi River (1954, 1966) and the Gandak River (1959).
Irrigation and drainage development
Evolution of irrigation development
The history of irrigation development in India can be traced back to prehistoric times. Ancient Indian scriptures made references to construction of wells, canals, tanks and dams and their efficient operation and maintenance. The practice of irrigation as a means of producing food grains is known to have been in vogue for over 5 000 years (Framji, 1987). There is evidence of the practice of irrigation since the establishment of settled agriculture during the Indus Valley Civilization (year 2500 Before the Common Era (BCE)). These irrigation technologies were in the form of small and minor works. Traces of irrigation structures dating back 3 700 years ago have been found in the state of Maharashtra. During the Mauryan era (2 600-2 200 years ago), it is reported that farmers had to pay taxes for irrigation water from neighbouring rivers. The Grand Anicut (Canal) across the river Cauvery in Tamil Nadu was begun 1 800 years ago and its basic design is still used today. In 1800, some 800 000 ha were irrigated in India. Following major famines at the end of the 19th century, major irrigation canals were built, and in 1900 the Indian peninsula (including Bangladesh and Pakistan) had some 13 million ha under irrigation. In 1947, India had about 22 million ha under irrigation. High priority has been given to irrigation with nearly 10 percent of all planned outlays since 1950 being invested in irrigated agriculture. This has resulted in at 0.6-0.7 million ha of new irrigated schemes being developed every year on average.
The emphasis on irrigation development was initially on run-of-the-river schemes. Subsequently, the need was felt for storage projects for either single or multiple purposes. Irrigation schemes are grouped under three categories: major (>10 000 ha), medium (2 000-10 000 ha) and minor (<2 000 ha) schemes. Minor irrigation projects generally have both surface water and groundwater as sources, while major and medium projects exploit surface water resources. In 1993 around 65 percent were minor schemes. In new major irrigation works, social and environmental costs (resettlement of displaced people, loss of biodiversity in submerged areas, etc.) are taken into consideration in a more systematic way than in the past.
While in 1993 the ultimate irrigation potential of India was estimated at 113.5 million ha, new estimates give a figure of 139.5 million ha, of which 58.1 million ha for major and medium irrigation schemes and 81.4 million ha for minor irrigation projects. Of the 81.4 million ha of minor irrigation potential, groundwater based potential is estimated to be 64.1 million ha and the surface water based potential is 17.3 million ha.
Total area equipped for irrigation is estimated at 66.3 million ha in 2008 (Table 4). Irrigation is mainly concentrated in the north of the country along the Indus and Ganges rivers: Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. A classification of irrigation by origin of water is in common use in India. It differentiates irrigation from canals (29 percent in 2001), most of which are government canals, tanks (4 percent), groundwater wells (63 percent), the majority being privately owned and managed, and other or undefined sources (4 percent) (Figure 4). In 1993 the area equipped for irrigation was estimated at 50.1 million ha of which irrigation by canals accounted for 34 percent (97 percent are government canals), tanks 6.5 percent, groundwater 53 percent (generally privately owned and managed) and other or undefined sources (6.5 percent). This shows that the use of groundwater for irrigation has increased considerably.
Of the 19.75 million minor irrigation schemes, groundwater schemes account for 18.5 million and the rest are based on surface water resources. The surface flow schemes typically comprise tanks and storages developed by construction of check dams. Groundwater schemes comprise dug wells, dug cum bore wells, borings, and shallow as well as deep tubewells. There is considerable variation in the development of minor irrigation from state to state. While full potential through minor irrigation has been tapped in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and some of the Union Territories, it is as low as 18 percent in Manipur and 20 percent in Madhya Pradesh. Minor irrigation schemes are in general in the private sector and very few (6 percent) are owned by public institutions.
The main driving force behind the expansion of groundwater irrigation and improvement in agricultural productivity in India over the past few decades was the support to investment in electrification and credit provision. Private groundwater irrigation with shallow wells serving 3-5 ha each is considered to be the most cost-effective solution. Of the 18.50 million groundwater wells 16.43 million wells are in use (7.85 million dug wells, 8.10 million shallow tubewells and the rest deep tubewells). Development of groundwater resources varies from state to state. Groundwater is still available for exploitation in the eastern parts of the country, and in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, specific pockets of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharastra and Jammu and Kashmir. In Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujrat and Tamil Nadu, the exploitation exceeds the recharge to groundwater.
In many states, especially in the north (Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana), the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been practiced through canal systems and tubewells or dug wells to increase the yield and general efficiency of the water system. Water from the tubewells, which are installed along the side of the existing canals, is added into the canals for utilization in the canal command areas. This practice helps prevent waterlogging but requires the adoption of good management techniques by farmers.
The irrigation component of Bharat Nirman Programme of the Government of India, a business plan for rural infrastructure, started in 2005 and envisages the development of an additional irrigation area of 10 million ha through various irrigation schemes. At present 166 major, 222 medium and 89 ERM (environmental resources management) projects are reported to be ongoing in various states. The Government of India provides support to State Governments through Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program (AIBP) and other schemes.
The development of sprinkler and localized irrigation in recent years has been considerable, mainly due to the pressing demand for water from other sectors, a fact which has encouraged governments and farmers to find water saving techniques for agriculture. Sprinkler irrigation was not widely used in India before the 1980s. More than 200 000 sprinkler sets were sold between 1985 and 1996. In 2004 the area under sprinkler irrigation was estimated at 1.4 million ha, while in 1996 it was estimated at about 0.7 million ha. Localized irrigation is also expanding rapidly in India. This can be partly explained by the subsidies offered by the Government to adopt drip systems. From about 1 000 ha in 1985, the area under drip irrigation increased to 70 860 ha in 1991, mainly in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In 2004 the area under localized irrigation is estimated at 578 207 ha (Figure 5). Drip-irrigated crops are mainly orchards, mainly grapes, bananas, pomegranates and mangoes. Localized irrigation is also used for sugarcane and coconut. In 2004 surface irrigation was estimated at 61.9 million ha. The approximate capital cost of sprinkler systems (excluding pump cost) ranges from US$345-450/ha. The approximate cost of localized irrigation is US$1 780- 6 240/ha.
Waterharvesting systems, comprising tanks and other water conservation works, are devised to capture, store, and distribute water for irrigation besides meeting the municipal needs of the population. As per the third minor irrigation census carried out in 2001 the number of tanks, storage and other water conservation works is 0.457 million.
Role of irrigation in agricultural production, the economy and society
Irrigation development has enabled diversification of cropping patterns with crops grown all year round. The expansion of irrigation has not only directly enabled yield increases, it has also facilitated high input, high yielding agriculture involving the use of chemical fertilizers and high yielding varieties of wheat rice and maize. The food grain production has increased from about 50 million tons in 1951 to 213 million tons in 2004. However, although irrigated crop yields have increased considerably, they are still low compared to those of other countries. This is mainly due to poor water management in the majority of the surface irrigation schemes.
In 2004, the harvested irrigated crop area covered around 76.8 million ha, of which 31 percent wheat, 29 percent rice, 2 percent maize, 7 percent oil palm, 6 percent vegetables and fruits and 5 percent sugarcane (Table 4 and Figure 6). In 1993, the total harvested area was estimated at 66.1 million ha.
Status and evolution of drainage systems
In 1991, drainage works had been undertaken on about 5.8 million ha, which was 12 percent of the irrigated area. Investment in drainage has been widely neglected, and where such investment has been made, poor maintenance has caused many drainage systems to become silted up. In the eastern Ganges plain, investment in surface drainage would probably have a larger productive impact, and at a lower cost, than investment in surface irrigation. In 2010, only some irrigation systems, predominantly of south and western India, have well laid out drainage systems.
Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture
Under the Indian Constitution, water is the responsibility of the states. Thus the federal states are primarily responsible for the planning, implementation, funding and management of water resources development. This responsibility in each state is borne by the Irrigation and Water Supply Department. The Inter-State Water Disputes Act of 1956 provides a framework for the resolution of possible conflicts.
At central level, which is responsible for water management in the union territories and in charge of developing guidelines and a policy frame for all the states, there are three main institutions involved in water resources management:
- The Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) is responsible for laying down policy guidelines and programmes for the development and regulation of the country’s water resources. The ministry’s technical arm, the Central Water Commission (CWC), provides general infrastructural, technical and research support for water resources development at state level. The CWC is also responsible for the assessment of water resources;
- The Planning Commission is responsible for the allocation of financial resources required for various programmes and schemes of water resources development to the states as well as to the MWR. It is also actively involved in policy formulation related to water resources development at the national level;
- The Ministry of Agriculture promotes irrigated agriculture through its Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
Further, the Indian National Committee of Irrigation and Drainage (INCID) coordinates with the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) and promotes research in the relevant areas. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is in charge of water quality monitoring, and the preparation and implementation of action plans to solve pollution problems.
In 1996, the Central Groundwater Authority was established to regulate and control groundwater development with a view to preserving and protecting the resource.
Water resources planning and management should be seen in a context of food grain availability. Food grain production increased in the 1950s and 1960s due to increases in the cultivated area, expansion in irrigated area and the use of high yielding varieties (HYVs) from the mid-1960s onwards. Irrigation has also helped reduce inter-annual fluctuations in agricultural output and India’s vulnerability to drought. One of the goals of Indian policy is now to find ways of maintaining the level of food grain availability per inhabitant in a context of population increase. Total water demand is expected to equal water availability by 2025, but industrial and municipal water demand are expected to rise drastically at the expense of the agricultural sector which will have to produce more with less water.
The centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) Programme was launched in 1974-75. The main objectives of the programme are improving the utilization of the area equipped for irrigation and optimizing agriculture production and productivity from irrigated agriculture. The Programme involves the implementation of on-farm development works like construction of field channels and field drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas, renovation and rehabilitation of minor irrigation tanks, correction of irrigation water distribution system deficiencies. The programme also involves “software” activities like adaptive trials, demonstrations, training of farmers, evaluation studies, etc. Warabandi, a rotation system of distribution of irrigation water in order to ensure equitable and timely supply of water to all the farm holdings of the command, is also a component of the programme. An amount of Rs 35 280 million has been released to the states as central assistance under the programme from the inception till end of March, 2008. An area of about 18.07 million ha has been covered under the programme since inception up to the end of March, 2007. The CAD Programme has been restructured and renamed as ‘Command Area Development and Water Management (CADWM)’ Programme since the 1st of April 2004.
The main systems of irrigation water management (distribution) schemes practiced in India are:
- The warabandi system in semi-arid and arid northwest India where irrigation water is strictly rationed in proportion to farm area and supplied on a predetermined rotational schedule. The distribution system is equipped with field channels and watercourses. Primarily designed to adapt to shortage in water supplies, farmers decide on crops according to the expected water supply.
- The shejpali system of western and parts of central and southern India where farmers obtain official sanction for proposed cropping patterns and are then entitled to irrigation supplies according to crop needs. The distribution system is equipped with field channels and watercourses. These systems were designed at a time when irrigation water was plentiful relative to demand.
- The localization system in parts of southern India, focussing on locational control of cropping patterns. Low-lying areas are zoned for ‘wet’ crops (primarily rice and sugarcane), while higher areas are limited to ‘irrigated dry’ (ID) crops with restricted water supplies. The distribution system is equipped with watercourses and field channels. Such systems break down as head-end farmers in ID zones take up cultivation of high water requiring crops and draw more water than their allowed allocation quantity;
- The traditional field-to-field irrigation system which is used mainly for rice in some areas of eastern India and some parts of south India. Continuous irrigation flows are provided, passing from field to field, generally without watercourses or field channels. Operating rules have often evolved and been agreed through local tradition, and where water is abundant, yields can be good. However, crop choice and cropping patterns are limited.
A broad distinction can be made between supply-based systems (such as warabandi) that distribute water according to predetermined procedures and require the farmers to respond accordingly in terms of cropping patterns and areas, and demand-based systems (such as shejpali) that attempt to meet crop water needs. In supply-based systems, the role of the irrigation department tends to be simpler than under demand-based systems that require the department to respond to changing farmers’ needs with more complex and flexible infrastructures and more intensive management. The average overall water use efficiency in canal irrigation systems is estimated at 38-40 per cent.
The National Water Policy 2002 emphasizes participatory approach in water resources management. It has been recognized that participation of beneficiaries will help greatly for the optimal upkeep of the irrigation system and efficient utilization of irrigation water. The participation of farmers in irrigation management is formulated through the constitution of Water Users’ Associations (WUAs). The aims of the WUAs are to: i) promote and secure distribution of water among users; ii) ensure adequate maintenance of the irrigation systems; iii) improve efficiency and economic utilization of water; iv) optimize agricultural production; v) protect the environment; and vi) ensure ecological balance by involving the farmers and inculcating a sense of ownership of the irrigation systems in accordance with the water budget and operational plan. The WUAs are formed and work on the basis of executive instructions and guidelines laid down by each state government. There is no central legislation or legal instrument in this regard. However, the only state which has passed legislation exclusively for farmer participation in the management of irrigation systems is Andhra Pradesh. A total of 55 500 WUAs were constituted in India covering an area of 10.23 million ha.
The National Groundwater Recharge Master Plan (NGRMP) provides a nationwide assessment of the groundwater recharge potential and outlines the guiding principles for an artificial groundwater recharge programme. The plan estimates that through dedicated recharge structures in rural areas and rooftop water harvesting structures in urban areas a total of 36 km3 can be added to groundwater recharge annually. The master plan follows two criteria for identifying recharge: availability of surplus water and availability of storage space in aquifers. The investments in the programme would therefore be driven by the potential available for groundwater recharge, and not by the need for recharge. Thus, the three states of Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu, which together account for over half of India’s threatened groundwater blocks, receive only 21 percent of funds, whereas the states of the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin, which face no groundwater overdevelopment problems, receive 43 percent of the funds. If implemented successfully, this recharge programme will be able to add a significant quantity of water to India’s groundwater storage, but it will not provide much help in the areas that are most in need of help.
At present there is no uniform set of principles in fixing the water rates. The water charges vary from state to state, project to project and crop to crop. The rates vary widely for the same crop in the same state depending on irrigation season, type of system etc.
Water rates being abysmally low, not enough funds are generated for proper maintenance of irrigation systems, leading to poor quality of service. It is necessary that the state governments evolve a policy for periodical rationalization and revision of water rates so that the revenue generated by the irrigation sector is able to meet the cost of operation and maintenance. However, in view of unreliable and poor quality of services, farmers are reluctant to pay increased water charges. They may not be averse to paying increased water charges if the quality of services is first improved. It is imperative that the tariff structure is reviewed and revised with simultaneous improvement in the quality of services provided so as to restore the efficiencies. Rationalization of water rates will also act as deterrent to excessive and wasteful use of water. Shift towards fixing the water rates on volumetric basis is desirable. This will encourage the farmers to avoid over-irrigation and wasteful use of water, thereby increasing water use efficiencies. A uniform formula of water pricing for the entire country would have no practical value. It may be considered to recommend setting up of an independent State Regulatory Authority for rationalization of water rates by each state.
Policies and legislation
India adopted a National Water Policy in 1987, which was revised in 2002, for the planning and development of water resources to be governed by national perspectives. It emphasizes the need for river basin based planning of water use. Water allocation priority has been given to drinking water, followed by irrigation, hydropower, navigation and industrial or other uses. As water resources development is a state responsibility, all the states are required to develop their state water policy within the framework of the national water policy and, accordingly, set up a master plan for water resources development.
Environment and health
Water quality is a major issue in India. Although in their upper reaches most rivers are of good quality, the importance of water use for cities, agriculture and industries, and the lack of wastewater treatment plants in the middle and lower reaches of most rivers cause a major degradation of surface water quality. Groundwater is also affected by municipal, industrial and agricultural pollutants. The overexploitation of groundwater can also lead to seawater intrusion. For example, there is an inland advance of the saline-freshwater interface in the Chingelput district of Tamil Nadu, where a well field along the Korttalaiyar River supplies water to the city of Madras.
In 1992, the Central Pollution Control Board completed water quality studies in all major river basins. The pollution control action plan of the Ganges River basin was formulated in 1984 and has been enforced by the Ganges Project Directorate, under the Central Ganges Authority, to oversee pollution control and the consequent cleaning of the Ganges River. The water quality in the middle stretch of the Ganges River, which had deteriorated to class C and D (the worst class is E, the best A), was restored to class B in 1990 after the implementation of the action plan. Similar programme for other rivers have been developed as well as a national river action plan to clean the heavily polluted stretches of the major rivers of the country.
According to the National Commission on Floods, the area subject to flooding is estimated at about 40 million ha (about 12 percent of the area of the country). About 80 percent of this area, or 32 million ha, could be provided with reasonable protection. Bihar is the worst flood hit state. Hardly a year passes without severe flood damages. With the onset of the monsoon, rivers come down from the Himalayan hills in Nepal with enormous force, leading to rivers like Ghagra, Kamla, Kosi, Bagmati, Gandak, Ganges, Falgu, Karmnasa, Mahanadi rising above the danger level. This results in severe floods in North Bihar.The Kosi river, popularly known as “the sorrow of Bihar”, has not yet matured enough to settle on a course, and has changed its course 15-16 times the last time being as recent as August 2008. About 2.8 million people were said to have been marooned by these floods in Bihar.
The total area subject to waterlogging was estimated at 8.5 million ha in 1985, including both rainfed and irrigated areas. This is thought to be a substantial underestimate as precise data are lacking. It is estimated that about 24 percent irrigated command areas of major and medium irrigation projects is subject to waterlogging. Measures to counter waterlogging and salinity are being taken by constructing field channels and drains, and by encouraging the combined use of surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, it is estimated that out of the total irrigated area about 3.3 million ha are affected by salinity.
Water-borne diseases have continued increasing over the years in spite of government efforts to combat them. States such as Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are endemic for malaria on account of the high water table, waterlogging and seepage in the canal catchment area. There are also numerous cases of filariasis. In 1998 the population affected by water-related diseases was 44 million inhabitants.
Climate change may alter the distribution and quality of India’s water resources. Some of the impacts include occurrence of more intense rains, changed spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, higher runoff generation, low groundwater recharge, melting of glaciers, changes in evaporative demands and water use patterns in agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors, etc. These impacts lead to severe influences on the agricultural production and food security, ecology, biodiversity, river flows, floods, and droughts, water security, human and animal health and sea level rise.
Prospects for agricultural water management
Water resource availability is replete with severe uncertainties. Frequent severe droughts and floods are not uncommon. There is a need to produce as much as 325-350 million tons of food grains by 2025 to meet the food, feed, fodder and fiber requirements of India. To meet this estimate of food grain requirement it is assumed that the overall irrigation efficiencies will be in the order of 50 percent for surface water systems and 72 percent for groundwater systems, compared to the present level of 35-40 percent, and that the national average food grain production yields are expected to increase to a level of about 3.5 tons/ha for irrigated areas and 1.25 tons/ha for rainfed areas, compared to the present levels of about 2 tons/ha in irrigated areas and 1 ton/ha in rainfed areas. In the wake of the development of large-scale irrigation facilities, several serious problems of degradation of soil, water, and environment cropped up threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. These include:
- Further land availability for agriculture is extremely limited
- A total of 8.53 million ha is subject to waterlogging
- Land degradation over 22.5 million ha is caused by floods, water and wind erosion
- The per capita availability of water resource is expected to reduce to 1 335 m3/year by 2025
- No irrigation development has taken place in Brahmaputra basin, which has 60 percent of India’s water resources
- Agriculture in India stands to face the stiff competition for water from other sectors. By 2025, agricultural water withdrawal is expected to reduce to 70 percent of total withdrawal, against 90 percent at present
- The irrigations tanks have faced neglect and most of them have become non-operational
- Continued extensive pollution of water bodies both from point and non-point sources has deteriorated the quality of available water resources, further depleting the utilizable water
Some of the important issues to be addressed immediately to overcome these constraints and to achieve sustainable development and use of water resources to ensure the targeted food grain production of 325-350 million tons by 2025 include to:
- consider precipitation as the primary renewable water resource;
- undertake effective steps for speedy completion of ongoing major and medium irrigation projects where large investments have already been made without appreciable physical achievement. Rehabilitation and modernization of old irrigation works is of utmost priority;
- reorient irrigated agriculture to produce more with less water;
- provide incentives to farmers that adopt water-saving devices and scientific irrigation scheduling;
- combat waterlogging and salinity built up in irrigation command areas;
- combat unsustainable use of groundwater;
- induce scientific management of water resources in drought prone areas;
- direct all efforts towards ensuring access to safe drinking water for all;
- price the irrigation water in such a way that they cover at least the O&M charges of providing the service. The water rates shall be linked directly to the quality of service provided;
- increase participatory irrigation management and transfer of the management of water distribution system to stakeholders, spread water use literacy among stakeholders through training programmes, and provide water at cheaper bulk rates to WUAs;
- ensure environmental protection of water resources by meeting environmental flow requirements, environmental management of river systems, and prevention of pollution to groundwater bodies and conservation of wetlands.
In order to intensify efforts in Research and Development (R&D) for improving water use efficiency, both location specific field studies and analytical studies should be implemented in order to develop systematic decision support systems for planning and implementing real time operations in the irrigation systems. These measures would allow growing multiple crops under limited water supply, using modern tools like medium range weather forecasts, and modern irrigation methods.
Efficient water management in agriculture holds the promise to fulfil the future food needs of India because of several comparative advantages. There are several common and uncommon strengths and opportunities for increasing food grain production through improved water management in India. Some of the prominent common ones are:
- India has a high average annual rainfall as compared to many other countries;
- India’s irrigation infrastructure is the largest in the world;
- In terms of the total cropped area, India is the second largest in the entire world;
- There are widely varied climatic zones across the country that go from temperate regions suitable for horticultural crops, flowers, etc., to tropical regions suitable for cereals, oilseeds and pulses, with ample sunshine for over 11 months of the year;
- the vast alluvial tracts of the entire Gangetic plains, the fertile deltaic regions of major rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri, endowed with rich water resources, possess excellent potential for food production;
- India has the world’s third largest fertilizer industry;
- the large National Agricultural Research System (NARS) comprises about 87 national institutes and research centres, 81 all India coordinated research projects and 29 agricultural universities;
- there is ample scope for realizing the full yield potentials for almost all the crops.
Uncommon opportunities, which are high technology innovations that are likely to be developed in the near future are:
- Membrane technology for wastewater treatment and desalinization at low cost, thus increasing water availability to agriculture;
- Biotechnology: low water requiring crops, high yielding plant varieties that are most environmental friendly, plants that are salt tolerant or drought tolerant, plants with pest resistance (reduces pesticide pollution), hyper toxin accumulating plants to remove soil toxins;
- Microbial technologies for wastewater treatment for agricultural reuse;
- Increase in yields of rain fed agriculture;
- Separating heavy metals and other toxins from soil and water
Main sources of information
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