The element Yttrium is a soft, gray-white metal. It has the symbol Y and the atomic number 39.
|Previous Element: Strontium
Next Element: Zirconium
|Phase at Room Temp.||solid|
|Melting Point (K)||1796.2|
|Boiling Point (K)||3537|
|Heat of Fusion (kJ/mol)||17.2|
|Heat of Vaporization (kJ/mol)||367|
|Heat of Atomization (kJ/mol)||423|
|Thermal Conductivity (J/m sec K)||17.2|
|Electrical Conductivity (1/mohm cm)||16.9|
|Number of Isotopes||30 (50 natural)|
|Electron Affinity (kJ/mol)||29.6|
|First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)||615.6|
|Second Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)||1181|
|Third Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)||1979.9|
|Atomic Volume (cm3/mol)||19.8|
|Ionic Radius2- (pm)||---|
|Ionic Radius1- (pm)||---|
|Atomic Radius (pm)||180|
|Ionic Radius1+ (pm)||---|
|Ionic Radius2+ (pm)||---|
|Ionic Radius3+ (pm)||104|
|Common Oxidation Numbers||+3|
|Other Oxid. Numbers||+2|
|In Earth's Crust (mg/kg)||3.30×101|
|In Earth's Ocean (mg/L)||1.3×10-5|
|In Human Body (%)||0%|
|Regulatory / Health|
|OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)||TWA: 1 mg/m3|
|OSHA PEL Vacated 1989||TWA: 1 mg/m3|
|NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)||TWA: 1 mg/m3
IDLH: 500 mg/m3
Mineral Information Institute
Jefferson Accelerator Laboratory
Named after a city in Sweden, Yttrium was discovered in 1794 by Johann Gadolin of Finland. It was derived from the mineral ytterbite.
It is fairly stable in air (as long as it is not ground up), but reacts with water, acids and bases.
Moon rocks show an unusually high yttrium content.
Yttrium is used as a phosphor in TV screens, producing the red color.
Other uses include a microwave filter as well as a catalysts. When alloyed with aluminum, magnesium and chromium, it acts to strengthen those metals. It is also used as a material in superconductors and lasers.
An isotope of yttrium, Y90, is used in needles for certain surgical procedures.
Yttrium has no know biological use.
Yttrium is present in nearly all rare-earth minerals. It is obtained by mining the minerals bastnasite, fergusonite, monazite, samarskite and xenotime, which are mined in the USA, China, Australia, India and Brazil. Other yttrium-bearing minerals include gadolinite and polycrase.
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