Armenia has two ecoregions:
The Eastern Anatolian montane steppe ecoregion’s position at the junction of three floristic zones creates a unique biotic blend of species. Constituent landscapes of this region are floristically diverse. The mosaic of steppe and patches of woodlands, both remote and intact, are rich in terms of wildlife, too. Mammals such as the striped hyena (Hyena hyena), and marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna), birds such as the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and reptiles such as the Armenian viper (Vipera raddei) inhabit this region. Agriculture and industrial development have contributed to most of the degradation of ecosystems. More reserves are needed to protect diverse habitats.
These high mountains and patches of woodlands provide favorable habitat for many large mammal species. Brown bear (Ursus arctos), gray wolf (Canis lupus) are two important carnivores. Their presence is an indication of intact habitats. Another important species is striped hyena (Hyena hyena) which was once widespread, but is now on the Red List. Although there is not much information about its population status within the ecoregion it is known to occur in mountains of Turkey, Armenia, and Iran. Wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is often found in areas of rocky scree.
A number of species are close to extinction or extirpation. To date, 35 plant species of economic importance are known to have become extinct in Armenia. A further, 386 species (12% of the flora) are listed in the Armenian Red Data Book. The ecological crisis associated with Lake Sevan has been well documented. Vegetated wetlands around the lake have disappeared. In the Ararat valley alone, 1,500 square kilometers(km2) of swamps have been drained and transformed into agricultural land. In the mountainous areas, inhospitable climate, and remoteness make the region unattractive for large scale development.
Protected areas in the ecoregion is not sufficient for effective conservation. In Armenia, principal protected areas are Sevani National Park, and Khosrov, Dilijan and Shikahogh State Reserves. Uromiyeh Lake in the Iran with 4636 km2 is one of the important protected areas in the ecoregion.
The Caucasus Mixed Forests are located at a biogeographical crossroads where flora and fauna of at least three biogeographic provinces converge. Mount Elbrus, Europe’s highest point at 5,642 meters (m) above sea level. Speciation level is high; accordingly, the Caucasus forests have one of the highest levels of endemism in the temperate world. 23 percent of vascular plants and 10 percent of vertebrates are endemic to the region. Landscape and habitat diversity favors high species richness as well – about 5,000 vascular and 7,000 lower plants (including high mountains), and 700 vertebrate animals are found in this ecoregion.
Characteristic mammals include the East and West Caucasian tur (Capra cylindricornis and Capra caucasica), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), Caucasian red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), wild goat (Capra aegagrus), mouflon (Ovis orientalis gmelini), brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the critically endangered Caucasus leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica). Unsustainable forest use, including poor management and illegal cutting in combination with uncontrolled timber export, represent chief threats for these forest ecosystems.
Ecoregions are areas that:
 share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics;
 share similar environmental conditions; and,
 interact ecologically in ways that are critical for their long-term persistence.
Scientists at the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), have established a classification system that divides the world in 867 terrestrial ecoregions, 426 freshwater ecoregions and 229 marine ecoregions that reflect the distribution of a broad range of fauna and flora across the entire planet.