Climate Change

Climate Change

Global Climate Change, a topic that includes Global Warming, refers to the relatively abrupt shift in weather patterns during the last hundred years.

Click here for a site map of the Climate Change Collection in the Encyclopedia of Earth.

Climate change information in the Encyclopedia of Earth derives from The Climate, Adaptation, Mitigation, E-Learning (CAMEL) project from the Council of Environmental Deans and Directors (CEDD) of the National Council for Science and the Environment and is supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education (0950396).

  • Climate Change Escape Routes Featured News Article Climate Change Escape Routes Climate Change Escape Routes

    One if by Land, Two if by Sea? Climate Change "Escape Routes" Similar movement rates needed for animals and plants on land and in the oceans One if by land, two if by... More »

  • Halocarbon Featured Article Halocarbon Halocarbon

    A halocarbon is an organic chemical molecule composed of at least one carbon atom bound covalently with one or more halogen atoms; the most common halogens in these molecules... More »

  • Climate Change and Unprepared Cities Featured News Article Climate Change and Unprepared Cities Climate Change and Unprepared Cities

    Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared Cities Fast-growing urban areas most likely to feel the heat Cities worldwide are failing to take necessary steps to protect... More »

  • Pliocene Featured Article Pliocene Pliocene

    Editor's note: The Pliocene is the period of the geologic timescale that spans the era from approximately 5.331 to 2.588 million years ago. It preceeds the Pleistocene... More »

  • Ocean acidification troubles Featured Article Ocean acidification troubles Ocean acidification troubles

    The seas in which corals and other calcifying species dwell are turning acidic, their pH slowly dropping as Earth's oceans acidify in response to increased carbon dioxide... More »

Recently Updated
Management and Conservation of Wildlife in a Changing Arctic Environment Last Updated on 2014-07-07 18:45:12 This is Chapter 11 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Author: David R. Klein; Contributing Authors: Leonid M. Baskin, Lyudmila S. Bogoslovskaya, Kjell Danell, Anne Gunn, David B. Irons, Gary P. Kofinas, Kit M. Kovacs, Margarita Magomedova, Rosa H. Meehan, Don E. Russell, Patrick Valkenburg Climate changes in the Arctic in the past have had major influences on the ebb and flow in availability of wildlife to indigenous peoples and thus have influenced their distribution and the development of their cultures.Trade in animal parts, especially skins and ivory of marine mammals, and trapping and sale of fur-bearing animals go far back in time. Responsibility for management and conservation of wildlife in the Arctic falls heavily on the residents of the Arctic, but also on the global community that shares in the use of arctic resources. A sense of global stewardship toward the... More »
Introduction to Management and Conservation of Wildlife in a Changing Arctic Environment Last Updated on 2014-07-07 18:26:28 This is Section 11.1 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Author: David R. Klein; Contributing Authors: Leonid M. Baskin, Lyudmila S. Bogoslovskaya, Kjell Danell, Anne Gunn, David B. Irons, Gary P. Kofinas, Kit M. Kovacs, Margarita Magomedova, Rosa H. Meehan, Don E. Russell, Patrick Valkenburg What can be learned from present wildlife management systems in the Arctic that can be drawn upon to alter existing systems or to design new ones to more effectively deal with climate-induced changes, and other changes that may occur in the future? Climate is the driver of change that has been the primary focus of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, however, it is important to remember that changes from other causes are also underway within the Arctic and that these are also affecting arctic ecosystems, as well as the economies, lifestyles, and dependency on wildlife of people in the... More »
Lifestyle, technology and CO2 emissions in China Last Updated on 2014-06-28 17:59:40 Introduction China as the world’s largest developing country and the most populous country has achieved notable success in developing their economy with approximate 10 percent average annual growth of GDP over the last two decades [1-3]. Large sections of the population have been experiencing a transition from ‘poverty’ to ‘adequate food and clothing’; today growing parts of the population are getting closer to ‘well to do’ lifestyles [3]. However, the rapid growth of the economy has not only lead to dramatic changes of wealth and people’s lifestyle, but has also caused a huge amount of resources and energy consumption and associated CO2 and other emissions creating serious environmental problems on both local, regional and global scales [4-6]. Between 1990 and 2004 China’s total energy consumption has grown 5.0% annually from... More »
Key findings, science gaps, and recommendations for freshwater ecosystems in the ACIA Last Updated on 2014-06-24 17:51:50 This is Section 8.8 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Authors: Frederick J.Wrona,Terry D. Prowse, James D. Reist; Contributing Authors: Richard Beamish, John J. Gibson, John Hobbie, Erik Jeppesen, Jackie King, Guenter Koeck, Atte Korhola, Lucie Lévesque, Robie Macdonald, Michael Power,Vladimir Skvortsov,Warwick Vincent; Consulting Authors: Robert Clark, Brian Dempson, David Lean, Hannu Lehtonen, Sofia Perin, Richard Pienitz, Milla Rautio, John Smol, Ross Tallman, Alexander Zhulidov In general, changes in climate and UV radiation levels in the Arctic are very likely to have far-reaching impacts, affecting aquatic species at various trophic levels, the physical and chemical environment that makes up their habitat, and the processes that act on and within freshwater ecosystems. Interactions of climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation with freshwater... More »
Peat Last Updated on 2014-06-24 17:43:39 Peat is the partially decomposed remains of plant material, especially sphagnum moss. It is found in a wetlands environment where the addition of new plant material is faster than the decomposition of the accumulated plant material. A number of essential conditions that contribute to peat formation is provided in a wetlands: the plant material remains waterlogged, the temperature is low and there is a lack of oxygen both of which slow decomposition. “Wetlands” include floodplains, marshes, swamps, and coastal wetlands. Peat is the first material formed in the process that transforms plant matter into coal. As coal formation progresses, volatile materials like water are driven off, and the percentage of carbon content of the material increases, making it increasingly dense and hard. The majority of the peat harvested is called reed-sedge peat. The other harvested... More »