Dr. Vaclav Smil received a doctorate in natural sciences from Carolinum University in Prague in 1965. In 1969, shortly after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia, he came to the United States, earning a Ph.D. from The Pennsylvania State University in 1972. Since that time, Dr. Smil has been on the faculty of the University of Manitoba. He has published some 200 articles and two dozen books on issues ranging from energy policy to nitrogen cycling. His research interests also include the environment, food, population, economics and public policy.