Born in Tianjin, China, Jing Cao received her B.A. in probability & statistics from Beijing University and M.A. in statistics from Yale University. She now works for the STAF (stocks and flows) research group at the Center for Industrial Ecology at Yale University. Her research interests include: modeling the life cycle of metals, analyzing their environmental implications, and treating uncertainties in these studies, especially in estimating product lifetime and balancing "closure error."