Dr. Robert Kaufmann is a Professor in the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies and the Department of Geography at Boston University. He received his Ph.D. in 1988 from the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on three areas; world oil markets, development and analysis of policies to slow the emission of gases that contribute to global climate change, and ecological economics. In each area, his research makes progress by integrating theory and techniques developed in the social and natural sciences. Progress is defined by the ability to understand the issue at hand and the ability to develop effective policy.