Ecology

Ecology is the study of a community of biota, including the interactions with abiotic factors such as soils, water, and meteorological factors. The field of ecology addresses interactions of plants and animals including feeding behavior, selection of nesting or denning sites and competition among species. Time changes are particularly important, such as landscape changes arising from plant succession. Conservation of habitats is analyzed in order to determine the viability of not only individual species, but of the entire assemblage of flora, fauna and micro-organisms in a given ecosystem.

  • Review: Forest restoration Featured Article Review: Forest restoration Review: Forest restoration

    This Review, written by Raf Aerts and Olivier Honnay*, appeared first in BioMed Central Ecology—a peer-reviewed, open access journal. This review article is part of the... More »

  • Orangutan Featured Article Orangutan Orangutan

    The largest of the Asian primates, the orangutan, belongs to the Hominidae (or Great Apes) family whose members also include humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas.  While fossil... More »

  • Arctic marine environments Featured Article Arctic marine environments Arctic marine environments

    This is Section 10.2.1 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Author: Michael B. Usher; Contributing Authors:Terry V. Callaghan, Grant Gilchrist, Bill Heal, Glenn P.... More »

  • Habitat fragmentation Featured Article Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation

    Habitat fragmentation involves alteration of habitat resulting in spatial separation of habitat units from a previous state of greater... More »

  • Terrestrial biome Featured Article Terrestrial biome Terrestrial biome

    Introduction Many places on Earth share similar climatic conditions despite being found in geographically different areas. As a result of natural selection, comparable... More »

  • Virus Featured Article Virus Virus

    A virus is a microscopic organism that can replicate only inside the cells of a host organism. Most viruses are so tiny they are only observable with at least a conventional... More »

  • Europa Island Featured Article Europa Island Europa Island

    Europa Island located in the southern Mozambique Channel, between Madagascar and Mozambique. Europa Island is about 100 kilometers (km) southeast of Bassas da... More »

  • Mojave Desert Featured Article Mojave Desert Mojave Desert

    WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection The Mojave Desert is the smallest of the four North American deserts. While the Mojave lies between the... More »

  • Cheetah Featured Article Cheetah Cheetah

    The Cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is a vulnerable species within the cat family. While the fastest land animal and an adept hunter, this felid is not agressive... More »

Recently Updated
Madagascar mangroves Last Updated on 2015-05-27 11:30:24 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection Shielded from monsoon winds by the Central Highlands of Madagascar, Madagascar mangroves occupy a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions, and chiefly occur at the western coastline along the Mozambique Channel of the Indian Ocean. Although the ecoregion’s species richness is low, it is noteworthy in supporting certain endemic tree species; for example, thre are only 163 vertebrate taxa found in the entire ecoregion. The Madagascar mangroves are within the Mangroves biome of the Afrotropic Realm. These mangroves also shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Dugongs, birds and sea turtles utilise mangroves, as do the native Malagasy people. Rice farming, shrimp aquaculture as well as stockpiling of... More »
Madagascar succulent woodlands Last Updated on 2015-05-22 14:24:18 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection The Madagascar succulent wodlands ecoregion comprises a mosaic of succulent xeric adapted plants and deciduous forests that represent critical habitats for many species of animals and plants restricted to the western region of Madagascar. Some of the remarkable fauna and flora found in this ecoregion include the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena), the flat-tailed tortoise (Pyxis planicauda), two species of baobabs and several species of primates. This succulent woodland is located in southwestern and central western Madagascar. Its southern limit is the start of the spiny thicket and northern limit the lower end of the dry deciduous forest. The southern portion of the succulent woodland ecoregion is inland from the spiny thicket and further north this ecoregion meets the sea around Belo-Tsiribihina.... More »
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Last Updated on 2015-05-16 21:25:29 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection The Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands lie along a zone where deep Kalahari sands occur in a wide belt along the Angolan-Namibian border across to Zimbabwe, supporting dry deciduous forest dominated by Baikiaea plurijuga. The hot, semi-arid climate and nutrient-poor soils mean that this region is not suitable for farming, and thus it has retained some of its natural vegetation. Over 160 mammal species are found here, including ungulates and large predators. However, human settlements occur along the Kunene, Kwando and Zambezi rivers, and the valuable Baikiaea plurijuga is sought after for the timber trade. The instability promoted in Angola by Soviet financed Cuban troops, and hostilities between Angola and Namibia in the Caprivi Strip have contributed to the degradation of this ecoregion. This ecoregion is a... More »
Kalahari acacia-baikiaea woodlands Last Updated on 2015-05-11 18:02:12 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection Semi-arid Kalahari acacia-baikiaea woodlands stretches across the center of southern Africa, from northern Namibia through Botswana and slightly into the Tuli Block of South Africa. Surface water is scarce, and droughts occur approximately once every seven years. Therefore, the human population is relatively low, particularly on the sandveld that covers most of the ecoregion. This Kalahari woodland supports a rich and diverse fauna, including a variety of ungulates and a number of threatened large mammalian taxa such as White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Painted Hunting Dog (Lycaon pictus), and African Elephant (Loxodonta africana). However, human populations are increasing, and the burgeoning cattle industry has far-reaching adverse effects on the natural environment and... More »
Southern Africa bushveld Last Updated on 2015-05-02 20:03:07 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection The Southern Africa bushveld is an element of the vast savannas that cover much of southern Africa. There is low endemism in this ecoregion for both flora or fauna, but the charismatic large mammals and rich birdlife characteristic of African savannas are in evidence. The rugged Waterberg Mountains contain the highest levels of species richness and endemism in the region, and are noted for their reptilian endemism. Cattle ranching and urban expansion from the nearby Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging complex are the major threats to the conservation of this ecoregion. However, ecotourism has become a major land-use commitment in the bushveld and has led to the establishment of a number of small nature reserves and private game parks, which augment the conservation status of this ecoregion. The Southern... More »