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Environmental & Resource Management

  • National Ocean Policy Action Plan Featured News Article National Ocean Policy Action Plan National Ocean Policy Action Plan

    National Ocean Policy Action Plan draft requests public comments on actions Federal agencies will take to improve the health of oceans, coasts, and the Great Lakes.... More »

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    California, situated on the Pacific coast of the USA,  is the third largest state of the United States in land area and most populous state. The 2009 population... More »

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    Deforestation is the destruction or clearing of forested lands, usually for the purposes of expanding agricultural land or for timber harvesting. When the process is conducted... More »

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    Overgrazing is herbivory (animal comsumption of plants) that extracts an unsustainable yield of floral biomass from an ecosystem; however, the term is most often... More »

  • Agriculture I Featured Photo Gallery Agriculture I Agriculture I

    Humans began to cultivate food crops about 10,000 years ago. Prior to that time, hunter-gatherers secured their food as they traveled in the nearby environment. When they... More »

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    An Overview of Key Environmental Issues The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation obliges the Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation to... More »

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Human population explosion Last Updated on 2014-02-26 17:23:15   Approximately 7.2 billion humans inhabited the Earth in year 2013. By comparison, there might be 500,000 elephants of different kinds, 200,000 chimpanzees, 100,000 gorillas, 20,000 polar bears, 3,000 tigers, 2,000 giant pandas and 200 California condors. Notably, the human population has grown about ten-fold over the past 300 years and nearly four-fold in just the last century. This monumental historical development has profoundly changed the relationship of our species to its natural support systems and has greatly intensified our environmental impact, particularly regarding species extinctions. Equally amazing are the signs that, in our generation, the human population explosion is abating (Figure 1; note that, here and below, many of the values given are estimates and, after the year 2005, projections). Our numbers are expected to rise by another 50%... More »
The North American Mosaic Last Updated on 2013-10-24 15:12:08 An Overview of Key Environmental Issues The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation obliges the Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation to “periodically address the state of the environment in the territories of the Parties.” To meet this obligation, the Secretariat has developed this report—The North American Mosaic: An Overview of Key Environmental Issues—with the support of environmental reporting experts from the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States. This report describes a wide variety of environmental trends and conditions across North America. The breadth and diversity of the subject are astounding: from tiny invasive zebra mussels to global greenhouse gases measured by the teragram; from the last remaining vaquita porpoises to vast expanses of boreal forests and marine ecosystems; from invisible... More »
Changes in the Landscape of Arctic Traditional Food Last Updated on 2013-10-21 23:45:06 This article, written by Tim Lougheed*, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the peer-reviewed, open access journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth.   The Changing Landscape of Arctic Traditional Food The earliest European explorers seeking a northwest passage to Asia did not know what to make of the indigenous inhabitants they encountered in what is now Canada. In the 1500s, Martin Frobisher thought they were Asians and took a number as slaves; none survived more than a few weeks in captivity. Later adventurers acquired a profound respect for the knowledge that had enabled Inuit (“the... More »
Fisheries and aquaculture in the Northeast Atlantic (Barents and Norwegian Seas) Last Updated on 2013-10-01 23:52:20 This is Section 13.2 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Authors: Hjálmar Vilhjálmsson, Alf Håkon Hoel; Contributing Authors: Sveinn Agnarsson, Ragnar Arnason, James E. Carscadden, Arne Eide, David Fluharty, Geir Hønneland, Carsten Hvingel, Jakob Jakobsson, George Lilly, Odd Nakken,Vladimir Radchenko, Susanne Ramstad,William Schrank, Niels Vestergaard,Thomas Wilderbuer   The potential impacts of climate change on the fisheries in the arctic area of the Northeast Atlantic are explored in this article. The area comprises the northern and eastern parts of the Norwegian Sea to the south, and the north Norwegian and northwest Russian coasts and the Barents Sea to the east and north. The fisheries are located in areas under Norwegian and Russian jurisdictions as well as in international waters. The total fisheries haul in the area were around 2.1... More »
Aldo Leopold timeline Last Updated on 2013-10-01 23:47:07 This article is part of the Aldo Leopold Collection.     1887 Aldo Leopold, born in Burlington, Iowa on January 11, eldest of four children of Carl and Clara Leopold. 1904 Attends Lawrenceville School in New Jersey from January 1904 to May, 1905, to prepare for college. 1905 Attends Sheffield Scientific School at Yale (class of 1908). 1906 Begins coursework at Yale Forest School (Master of Forestry, 1909). 1909 Joins U.S. Forest Service (established 1905). First field assignment as assistant on Apache National Forest in southeastern Arizona. 1911 Transferred to Carson National Forest in northern New Mexico as deputy supervisor, then supervisor. Founds and edits Carson Pine Cone, a U.S. Forest Service newsletter. 1912 Marries Estella Bergere of Santa Fe on October 9. Five children: Starker, 1913; Luna, 1915; Nina, 1917; Carl, 1919; Estella, 1927. 1914 Assigned to... More »