Forests are one of the most important biomes on earth. They provide a wide range of “ecosystem services,” from watershed protection and carbon absorption to renewable energy and timber production.
Important reservoirs of plant and animal biodiversity in locations ranging from China to Latin America and many places in between, forests provide key components of the environmental, social and economic well-being of societies around the world.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Importance and relationship of boreal forests to climateLast Updated on 2014-09-30 10:47:57
This is Section 14.2 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.
Lead Author: Glenn P. Juday; Contributing Authors: Valerie Barber, Paul Duffy, Hans Linderholm, Scott Rupp, Steve Sparrow, Eugene Vaganov, John Yarie; Consulting Authors: Edward Berg, Rosanne D’Arrigo, Olafur Eggertsson,V.V. Furyaev, Edward H. Hogg, Satu Huttunen, Gordon Jacoby, V.Ya. Kaplunov, Seppo Kellomaki, A.V. Kirdyanov, Carol E. Lewis, Sune Linder, M.M. Naurzbaev, F.I. Pleshikov, Ulf T. Runesson,Yu.V. Savva, O.V. Sidorova,V.D. Stakanov, N.M.Tchebakova, E.N.Valendik, E.F.Vedrova, Martin Wilmking.
The boreal region covers about 17% of the terrestrial area of the earth, with a broad zone of forest in a continuous distribution across the Eurasian and North American landmasses. The boreal forest is defined as a belt of forest south of the tundra characterized by a small number of coniferous species... More »
AgroforestryLast Updated on 2014-09-08 22:31:15
Agroforestry is the deliberate incorporation of trees and other woody species of plants into other types of agricultural activities. By definition the use of woody species must result in the enhancement of either the biological productivity or the economic return of the system, or both. There are many types of agroforestry, which are usually defined by what type of agricultural activity is involved, but this can be a very broad definition and includes what we normally think of as agriculture (agroforestry), but also other combinations such as livestock production (sylvo-pastoral agroforestry) and even aquaculture (sylvo-aqua agroforestry). Even more complicated versions are possible such as agricultural systems that incorporate livestock, trees and aquaculture (sylvo-pastoral-aqua agroforestry).
In addition, agroforestry systems may be classified based on four interrelated... More »
GymnospermLast Updated on 2014-09-06 20:29:55A gymnosperm is one of a number of non-flowering seed bearing vegetation species, including conifers, cycads, Ginkgo and Gnetales. These species arose first in the Carboniferous Period. The word gymnosperm derives from the Greek root gymnospermos for naked seed, meaning the exposed presentation of their ovules prior to fertilization. This naked seed condition differs from the seeds of angiosperms (flowering plants), which are enclosed during pollination. Seeds of the gymnosperm develop on the surface of scale or leaf-like appendages of cones.
Gymnosperms first appeared in the late Carboniferous Period, although precursor characteristics of seed plants were evident in fossil progymnosperms from the late Devonian Period aproximately 380 million years before present. Within the mid-Mesozoic period, pollination of some extinct groups of gymnosperms were by extinct species of... More »
Alberta Mountain forestsLast Updated on 2014-08-10 23:19:28
WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection
The Alberta Mountain forests ecoregion lies entirely within Canada and almost fully within the province of Alberta, but hugs the Alberta-British Columbia border from Banff northward to Jasper and Kakwa. The ecoregion is classified within the Temperate Coniferous Forests biome.
Mean annual temperature in the Eastern Continental Ranges is 2.5°C, mean summer temperature is 12°C and mean winter temperature is -7.5°C. Precipitation increases from east to west and also with elevation, from 600-800 millimetres (mm) per year. Valley regions are marked by warm, dry summers and mild, snowy winters, and subalpine areas have cool, showery summers and cold, snowy winters.
This region covers the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, incorporating the eastern flanks of the Continental Ranges. The major peaks cluster... More »
Eastern Carpathian beech forestsLast Updated on 2014-07-08 14:27:50Primeval beech forests of the Carpathians are comprised of ten reserves are in the eastern Carpathian Mountains, five clustered in eastern Slovakia and southwestern Ukraine near the Polish border, and five in southwest Ukraine near the point the mountains pass into Romania. These forests, classified as substantially primeval by the United Nations, are situated between 47°56’12”N to 49°05’10”N and 22°11’23”E to 24°23’35”E.
1908: First Ukrainian forest Natural Reserve established in Stuzhytsia;
1920s: Several Ukrainian beech forests became Protected Areas;
1968: The Carpathian Biosphere Reserve created by Soviet Council decree 568;
1977: The Eastern Carpathian National Park established in Slovakia
1980: Karpatskiy National Park (50,303 ha)... More »
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