The seas in which corals and other calcifying species dwell are turning acidic, their pH slowly dropping as Earth's oceans acidify in response to increased carbon dioxide...
Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Volume 1: Current State and Trends: Urban SystemsLast Updated on 2014-06-28 17:05:25This is Chapter 27 of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment report Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Volume 1: Current State and Trends
Coordinating Lead Authors: Gordon McGranahan, Peter Marcotullio
Lead Authors: Xuemei Bai, Deborah Balk, Tania Braga, Ian Douglas, Thomas Elmqvist, William Rees, David Satterthwaite, Jacob Songsore, Hania Zlotnik
Review Editors: Jerry Eades, Exequiel Ezcurra
Urbanization and urban growth continue to be major demographic trends. The world’s urban population increased from about 200 million (~15% of world population) in 1900 to 2.9 billion (~50% of world population) in 2000, and the number of cities with populations in excess of 1 million increased from 17 in 1900 to 388 in 2000. As people are increasingly living in cities, and as cities act as both human ecosystem habitats and drivers of ecosystem change, it will become increasingly... More »
Complex SystemsLast Updated on 2013-10-24 15:13:11
As Science has begun to ask where the enduring features of nature come from and how they work, the answer seems to be “complex systems”. Every kind of thing and event seems to require them. As the science has advanced, and as the modern problems of economies and environmental conflicts emerge, a new kind of science is emerging that requires being very openly exploratory, using all the tools and combining all the related perspectives of others, to develop complex knowledge systems matching the variety of the complex system problems they respond to.
Systems are storms or “like storms” in many respects, complex distributed phenomena that may be either unexpectedly eventful or highly predictable. There’s still a rather wide range of opinion within science as to what complex systems are, even whether they are made of information or... More »
Changes in the Landscape of Arctic Traditional FoodLast Updated on 2013-10-21 23:45:06
This article, written by Tim Lougheed*, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the peer-reviewed, open access journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth.
The Changing Landscape of
Arctic Traditional Food
The earliest European explorers seeking a northwest passage to Asia did not know what to make of the indigenous inhabitants they encountered in what is now Canada. In the 1500s, Martin Frobisher thought they were Asians and took a number as slaves; none survived more than a few weeks in captivity. Later adventurers acquired a profound respect for the knowledge that had enabled Inuit (“the... More »
Collectively seeing complex systemsLast Updated on 2013-09-10 16:04:27Economists use multiple patterns of thinking to understand economies: market models, Marxist arguments, Keynesian and monetary theories, institutional analysis, and other forms. There is no more general model that unites the more specific models. Similarly, ecologists understand ecosystems through models emphasizing food webs, material and energy flows, population dynamics and species interactions, evolutionary processes, and spatial patterns. Divisions in scientific understanding also arise through the different spatial and temporal bounds scientists put on their analyses as well as different assumptions they make about how the parts of reality they are studying relate to the whole. For example, most economists, if they consider the environment at all, make very simple assumptions about ecosystems, while most ecologists, if they consider the economy at all, make very simple assumptions... More »
Ocean acidification troublesLast Updated on 2012-08-09 00:00:00
The seas in which corals and other calcifying species dwell are turning acidic, their pH slowly dropping as Earth's oceans acidify in response to increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Trouble in Paradise:
Ocean Acidification This Way Comes
Sustainability of tropical corals in question, but some species developing survival mechanisms
The following Discovery article is part two in a series on the National Science Foundation's Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability (SEES) investment. Visit parts one, three, four, five, six and seven in this series.
The following is part five in a series on the National Science Foundation's Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. Visit parts one, two, three, four, six, seven, eight and nine in this series.
Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn, and caldron bubble.
—Shakespeare,... More »
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