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Whether coastal marshes, inland swamps, or remote bogs, wetlands play an important ecological, economic, and cultural role in societies around the world.  Wetlands are technically defined by hydrology patterns, soil characteristics and/or types of vegetation present in a certain area. The valuable services they provide include water quality improvement and protection, water storage during flooding, erosion control in coastal areas, and rich and diverse wildlife habitat.


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Lower Kinabatangan-Segama Wetlands, Malaysia Last Updated on 2013-11-01 10:38:26 This article is written at a definitional level only. Authors wishing to improve this entry are inivited to expand the present treatment, which additions will be peer reviewed prior to publication of any expansion. The Lower Kinabatangan-Segama Wetlands was added to the Ramsar List of Wetlands of Internation Importance on October 28, 2008 (Ramsar Site # 1849).  The Lower Kinagatangan-Segama Wetlands are one of six Wetlands of International Importance in Malaysia. These wetlands are threatened by the expansion of oil palm plantations, especially in the upriver portion of the wetlands and tributary catchmentCatchment is the entire area of a hydrological drainage basin.. This 78.803 ha site is situated in Sabah (05°38’N 118°35’E)  in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. This reserve contains coastal... More »
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves Last Updated on 2013-10-17 23:48:27 The Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves ecoregion represents a mangrove habitat that is adapted to some of the most extreme temperatures and salinity conditions in the Indo-Pacific region. As a transition from the marine to freshwater and terrestrial systems, mangroves provide critical habitat for numerous species of fishes and crustaceans that are adapted to live among the tangled mass of pneumatophores, the roots that reach up from the muddy, anaerobic substrate to obrain the supply of oxygen for the mangrove trees. This ecoregion lies at the delta of the Indus River, which originates in the Tibetan Plateau and flows through the northwestern part of India and into the arid Thar Desert in Pakistan before finally emptying into the Arabian Sea. There are high salinity levels in the sloughs because of the high evaporation rates and the salts that are washed down by the river,... More »
Malaysia Protected Areas Last Updated on 2013-10-16 23:30:41 The protected areas of Malaysia include a number of National Parks, State Parks, Marine Reserves, Wildlife Reserves and protected RAMSAR wetland sites. Ecoregions of Malaysia Malaysia Biodiversity and Protected Areas Factsheet Mount Kinabalu National Park Gunung Mulu National Park Endau Rompin National Park Gunung Ledang Johor National Park Tanjung Piai Johor National Park Pulau Kukup Johor National Park Islands off Mersing Johor National Park Gunung Stong State Park Taman Negara National Park Krau Wildlife Reserve Penang National Park Royal Belum State Park Perlis State Park Wang Pinang Reserve Selangor Heritage Park Bukit Cahaya Seri Alam Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve Templer’s Park Bako National Park Gunung Mulu National Park Niah National Park Lambir Hills National Park Similajau National Park Gunung Gading National Park Kubah National... More »
Black Sea Last Updated on 2013-09-21 16:00:44 The Black Sea is a Mediterranean sea, centered at approximately 35o E and 44o N; it is considered the world’s largest inland water basin, although technically it is connected to the world's oceans via the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. It has a surface area of about 461,000 km2 and a volume of 537,000 km3 with a mean depth of around 1200 to 1300 metres (m), although depths greater than 2000 m are common in the central basin.  The western part of the Black Sea is a wide shelf that gradually narrows to the south and breaks at around 100-150 m. In the rest of the basin the shelf doesn’t exceed 10 to 15 kilometres in width. It is connected to the Sea of Marmara via the narrow (760 m wide) and shallow (27.5 m maximum depth) Bosporus Straits, and further connects to the Mediterranean Sea via the long and narrow Dardanelles. It is also connected to the Sea of Azov to... More »
Gulf of Panama mangroves Last Updated on 2013-09-14 23:22:45 The Gulf of Panama mangroves ecoregion lies along the Pacific Coast of central Panama, and exhibits exceptional biological diversity for a mangrove ecosystem, due to high microclimate variation in climatic conditions within relatively small areas; this biodiversity is further enhanced by periodic hurricane and El Nino disturbances that bring both high and low extremes in rainfall in a ecoregion where dry and rainy seasons are already extreme. Climatic conditions range from dry to humid and rainy tropical, and humid subtropical. The types of mangroves found within this ecoregion depend heavily on localised salinity levels, which depend in turn on the supply of freshwater, levels of evapotranspiration associated with the microclimate, and distance from tidal channels, which affects levels of marine inundation. The wetlands associated with this ecoregion play an important role in storing... More »