The topic area of mining and materials covers the extraction and use of substances for human purposes and the related impacts and consequences, such as pollution. It includes mining and resource extraction practices and impacts in all locations, including off-shore and into water bodies and the atmosphere. It includes materials in all forms from elemental (overlapping with chemistry) to manufactured products and side- or waste-materials. It includes industrial processes, material and waste management. It includes practices and policies related to mining and materials, including drivers like consumption patterns and resource economics.
The mining of gold is commonly perceived as ‘unsustainable’ – after all, gold is a metal with finite resources. A more comprehensive analysis of...
Extraterrestrial soilsLast Updated on 2013-05-20 at 04:04
Extraterrestrial soils may be defined as any of the solid granular crustal features of planets and moon other than those soils on planet Earth. Despite four decades of space... More »
Dead SeaLast Updated on 2013-05-13 at 23:29
The Dead Sea is a hypersaline lake that forms part of the border between Jordan from Israel, and that has no outlet and only one principal source, the Jordan River.
This is... More »
CadmiumLast Updated on 2013-05-04 at 14:10
Cadmium is a very soft, silvery-white metallic element. Its atomic number is 48, with the atomic symbol Cd. It is so soft that it can be cut with a knife. Cadmium... More »
Orange RiverLast Updated on 2013-05-02 at 13:22
The Orange River is the longest watercourse in Southern Africa. Lying south of the Zambezi River, The Orange River rises in the Drakensberg Mountains and flows westward to... More »
Vaal RiverLast Updated on 2013-05-02 at 13:21
The Vaal River rises in the Drakensberg Mountains within the nation of South Africa and is the chief tributary of the Orange River. At 1105 kilometres in length, the Vaal is... More »
Point source pollutionLast Updated on 2013-04-05 at 16:34
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines point source pollution as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which... More »