Meteorology is a sub-discipline of the broader field of knowledge known as atmospheric sciences. The purpose of the science of meteorology is to understand the processes and phenomena that make up our planet’s weather. From this understanding, meteorologists are able to generate short-term weather forecasts using current climate information, software and powerful computers. Weather forecasts are very important as they help us plan the various social and economic aspects of our lives. Modification of the software used in weather forecasting has allowed scientists to build models for understanding the climate of the Earth’s past. These models can also be used to make predictions about the future of our planet’s weather and climate under the scenario of global warming.
NOAA 2011 Atlantic Hurricane
The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season outlook is an official product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...
Earth's atmospheric airLast Updated on 2014-04-02 14:56:48The Earth's atmospheric air is a colorless, odorless and tasteless mixture of gases consisting mostly of nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2). It is the part of Earth's atmosphere that humans and all other animals breathe in order to obtain the oxygen needed to sustain life.
The Earth's atmosphere not only contains the air we breathe, it also holds clouds of moisture (water vapor) that become the water we drink. Furthermore, it protects us from meteors and harmful solar radiation and warms the Earth's surface by heat retention. In effect, the atmosphere is an envelope that protects all life on Earth.
The air may contain pollutants that originate from a variety of sources such as our industries and our vehicles, and can directly or indirectly affect our health and the natural environment. These effects may be experienced near the sources of air pollution and some air... More »
RespirationLast Updated on 2014-01-31 16:43:42Respiration is the gas exchange effected by living organisms for the purpose of sustaining vital metabolic processes. In the case of most animals, oxygen is taken into the organism, and carbon dioxide is expelled. In the case of plants, the inverse process occurs of consuming carbon dioxide and expelling oxygen as a waste gas.
Respiration may also be viewed at a cellular level, examining gas exchange at the cell wall; for very simple organisms, such as unicellular lifeforms, the process of gas exchange with the environment is simplified, so that cellular wall gas exchange is the totality of respiration for such an organism.
In the case of some bacteria and archaea, respiration sometimes occurs without any oxygen, and alternative molecular gases such as hydrogen sulfide or methane may participate in respiration and subsequent cellular metabolic reactions. Often such organisms are... More »
AERMOD Last Updated on 2013-10-05 15:00:30AERMOD is the latest generation air dispersion model designed for short-range (up to 50 kilometers) dispersion of air pollutant emissions from stationary industrial sources. It is a steady-state plume model incorporating dispersion based on planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence structure and scaling, and it accomodates surface and elevated emission sources as well as simple or complex terrain.
As of December 9, 2005, the U.S. EPA designated AERMOD as the preferred model to be used for compliance with any federal and state air pollution dispersion modeling requirements. As of November 9, 2006, AERMOD completely replaces the previous preferred model known as the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model.
The AERMOD system integrates three modules:
A steady-state Gaussian dispersion model designed for short-range dispersion of continuous emissions from stationary... More »
National Center for Atmospheric ResearchLast Updated on 2013-08-21 02:53:16The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a non-governmental institute, based in the United States, whose stated mission is "exploring and understanding our atmosphere and its interactions with the Sun, the oceans, the biosphere, and human society."
NCAR's flagship Mesa Laboratory is located in the outskirts of Boulder, Colorado, in a dramatic complex of buildings designed by the renowned architect I. M. Pei. The site is maintained as a nature preserve.
The Mesa Laboratory includes science exhibits, an educational resource center, a library, and art galleries all of which open to the general public.
NCAR is headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, with most activity taking place on three campuses:
NCAR Mesa Laboratory: in the southwest outskirts of Boulder Foothills
Laboratory and Center Green Campus: in northeast Boulder Research
Aviation Facility: at... More »
Nonpoint sourceLast Updated on 2013-05-23 00:00:00
A nonpoint source refers to a source of pollution from an origin other than a well defined point. The term is most often applied to air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution. Nonpoint pollution sources may be classified as either line sources, area sources, or less frequently as volume sources. The classic line source is a linear highway, which produces both air pollution and noise pollution. A classic area source is a parcel of land, which produces water pollution in the form of surface runoff containing excessive amounts of nitrates, phosphates, pesticides and herbicides.
The attention to nonpoint sources was heightened, when researchers realized that most human exposure to air and noise pollution derived from nonpoint sources. In the case of noise pollution, over ninety percent of environmental noise exposure worldwide arises from line sources .Less commonly,... More »
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