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Recently Updated
Concentration expressions and notations Last Updated on 2014-06-18 18:21:06 In chemistry and other sciences, engineering and in fairly common usage, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is in a given mixture of substances. There are many different notations and quantitative expressions of concentration.[1] The most commonly used expressions are discussed below: The mole fraction is a measure of the concentration of a component substance in a mixture of substances. It is defined as the number of moles of a component substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of the mixture.[2][3] The mole percent  (also referred to as the molar percent) is usually denoted by mole % and is equal to 100 times the mole fraction. The mass fraction is also a measure of the concentration of a component substance in a mixture of substances. It is defined as the mass of a component substance in a mixture divided by the total... More »
Climate change in relation to carbon uptake and carbon storage in the Arctic Last Updated on 2014-06-11 17:04:43 This is Section 14.10 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Lead Author: Glenn P. Juday; Contributing Authors: Valerie Barber, Paul Duffy, Hans Linderholm, Scott Rupp, Steve Sparrow, Eugene Vaganov, John Yarie; Consulting Authors: Edward Berg, Rosanne D’Arrigo, Olafur Eggertsson,V.V. Furyaev, Edward H. Hogg, Satu Huttunen, Gordon Jacoby, V.Ya. Kaplunov, Seppo Kellomaki, A.V. Kirdyanov, Carol E. Lewis, Sune Linder, M.M. Naurzbaev, F.I. Pleshikov, Ulf T. Runesson,Yu.V. Savva, O.V. Sidorova,V.D. Stakanov, N.M.Tchebakova, E.N.Valendik, E.F.Vedrova, Martin Wilmking. Within the terrestrial biosphere, forests cover 43% of the land area but are potentially responsible for 72% of the annual net primary productivity[1]. The boreal forest covers roughly 1.37 billion hectares (ha) and by itself (not including high-latitude tundra) contains approximately 20% of global reactive soil... More »
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Last Updated on 2014-05-15 14:07:26 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection Included in the large coastal area of the Caribbean, the Araya-Paria xeric scrub ecoregion occupies the arid zones of Araya-Paria peninsula, with the exception of the montane areas of the Paria side. The montane areas of Paria are included in the Cordillera de la Costa ecoregion. Aria-Paria also includes the island of Margarita (all except the mangroves), and extends south on to the mainland to Cumaná. The Araya-Paria xeric scrub ecoregion is characterized by very dry environments, and constitutes one of the last refuges for a number of rare and restricted-range animal species. Oriented from east to west, the island of Margarita is located at 38 kilometers (km) north of Araya peninsula and has a total area of 934 square kilometers (km2). The island is made up of two regions joined by an isthmus.... More »
Serra do Mar coastal forests Last Updated on 2014-05-14 16:26:42 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection This tropical moist forest ecoregion along the southern coast of Brazil has a subtropical climate with high levels of annual rainfall. The Serra do Mar mountain range defines this ecoregion with montane forests of Bromeliaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, and Lauraceae species. This region contains outstanding biodiversity in endemism and species richness of flora, mammal, bird, and herpetofauna. More than half of the original forest has been altered; urban development and tourism constitute the main threats to this ecoregion. The Serra do Mar coastal forests cover a 100-kilometers(km) wide strip along the Atlantic Coast of Southeast and South Brazil. The climate is subtropical with an annual rainfall ranging from 1,400 to 4,000 millimeters (mm) without a dry period. This area of Brazil is occupied by... More »
Guinean montane forests Last Updated on 2014-05-05 20:02:38 WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection The Guinean Montane Forest consists of high altitude peaks and plateaus that spread across four countries in the Upper Guinean region of West Africa. One of the peaks, Bintumani (on the Loma Mountains of Sierra Leone), is the highest peak west of Mount Cameroon. The broad range of elevation, coupled with the underlying geology and anthropogenic activities, have given rise to different plant associations on several of the mountains. Although details of the number of endemic plants are not fully compiled, 35 plant species are known to be strictly endemic, with several mountains containing their own unique plant species, such as the orchid Rhipidoglossum paucifolium, known only from Mount Nimba. The fauna is also diverse with close to 15 strictly endemic vertebrate species, including species found on single... More »