Biophysics is the application of physics and physical chemistry to biological systems. The field is often confined within the molecular biology realm, but it is equally valid at macroscopic scales when considering aspects of organism transport on land, in the atmosphere and in water.
Molecular biophysics addresses cellular physical chemistry such as interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis, including regulation of these functions. Moreover, within this province are organism tissue studies including osmotic motion at the root/ soil interface;stomatal gas exchange in plants; alveoli gas exchange in animals; and electromagnetic aspects of neuron. Technology used in molecular biophysics includes electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and polarized light spectroscopy.
At a macroscopic level, biophysics is concerned with quantification of organism morphology and fitness. Thus, measurement of animal movement (velocity and acceleration) and body mass are fundamental in assessing fitness. Seed dispersal is concerned with the ability of seeds to achieve significant airborne buoyancy and range. The entire subject of animal flight is a valid subject of biophysics; moreover, the subjects of organism fluid buoyancy and swimming fitness are central in analyzing aquatic organism fitness.
A virus is a microscopic organism that can replicate only inside the cells of a host organism. Most viruses are so tiny they are only observable with at least a conventional...
CalciumLast Updated on 2013-10-24 16:29:12Calcium is the chemical element with atomic number 20; it has an atomic mass of 40.078 atomic mass units (amu). The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust; moreover, it is the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater both in terms of number of atoms and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.
Calcium an is essential nutrient for almost all living organisms, with vital roles in cellular metabolism, especially with regard to movement of the calcium ion Ca++ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a chief component needed in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in a large number of faunal species, especially vertebrates, testudines and mollusca.
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Public Health Statement for CopperLast Updated on 2013-09-28 17:33:53This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE.
This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Copper. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of [[exposure[[ to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.
This public health statement tells you about copper and the... More »
Public Health Statement for ChromiumLast Updated on 2013-09-28 17:28:55This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE.
This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Chromium. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.
This public health statement tells you about chromium and the... More »
Esperance malleeLast Updated on 2012-07-01 00:00:00
The Esperance mallee is an ecoregion in southwestern Australia amounting to approximately 44,600 squares miles in terrestrial extent. It is classified within the Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands and Shrub biome. About one half of the land area of this ecoregion is currently being used for agriculture, with most of the damage from agricultural clearance having been carried out in government sponsored public works programs.
There are a total of 382 recorded macro-fauna in the Esperance Mallee, including numerous special status birds and reptiles. The semi-arid ecoregion boasts a plethora of snakes, including two endemic squamata; there is also one endemic amphibian species, Neobatrachus albipes, in the Esperance Mallee.
Location and General Description
Esperance mallee is an aggregation of the Esperance Plains and Mallee regions of the foundational Iinterim Bogeographic... More »
PhosphateLast Updated on 2011-12-25 00:00:00
Phosphate is an inorganic polyatomic ion whose molecular form is a negatively charged group of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. Phosphate comprises 99 percent of all naturally occurring phosphorus in the Earth crust and surface waters. Phosphate occurs naturally in the Earth crust in a variety of mineral formations in rock; it is also found in dissolved form in most water bodies, and is an essential part of living organisms, as a necessary part of all DNA, along with other cellular occurrences.
As phosphate rocks weather, considerable amounts of phosphate become dissolved in surface waters, and much of the phosphate becomes available to plants in the surface soils, thus being an important part of the phosphorus cycle. Due to the massive demand for agricultural output to feed the exploding human population, phosphate fertilizers have been produced in large amounts over... More »
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