Human history can be told in terms of the history of energy. The discovery of fire, the domestication of animals, the discovery of fossil fuels, the electrification of cities, the oil wars in the Middle East, and advances in nuclear physics are all pivotal points in human history. Energy is a multifaceted concept; it is central to science and education, it plays pivotal role in economic growth, and it has a dominant position in international affairs. Conventional energy sources are major sources of environmental stress at global as well as local levels. Emissions from fossil fuels drive a range of global and regional environmental changes, including global climate change, acid deposition and urban smog. Coal mining disturbs vast areas of natural habitat, hydropower development can have significant environmental and social costs, and the exploration for and extraction of oil and natural gas can have significant impacts, particularly in sensitive ecosystems

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    Petroleum refining processes are those chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform... More »

  • California Featured Article California California

    California, situated on the Pacific coast of the USA,  is the third largest state of the United States in land area and most populous state. The 2009 population... More »

  • Fossil fuel Featured Article Fossil fuel Fossil fuel

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  • Hydrogen Featured Article Hydrogen Hydrogen

    Hydrogen has an atomic structure consisting of one proton and one electron, making it the lightest of the elements and exists as diatomic molecules. In the solid state the element... More »

  • Energy, Growth and Pollution Network Featured Article Energy, Growth and Pollution Network Energy, Growth and Pollution Network

    The Energy, Growth and Pollution network was established in 2003 to link together historians working on the history of energy use and its consequences for the economy and... More »

  • Fluid catalytic cracking Featured Article Fluid catalytic cracking Fluid catalytic cracking

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the most important conversion process used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling hydrocarbon fractions of... More »

  • Photovoltaic energy valuation model Featured Article Photovoltaic energy valuation model Photovoltaic energy valuation model

    Photovoltaic Energy Valuation Model Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with Solar Power Electric™ has developed PV ValueTM, an electronic form to... More »

  • Greenhouse gas Featured Article Greenhouse gas Greenhouse gas

    A greenhouse gas is one of several gases that can absorb and emit longwave (infrared) radiation in a planetary atmosphere. This phenomenon is often termed the greenhouse... More »

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Trinity Site, New Mexico Last Updated on 2014-06-28 18:11:15 Trinity Site, Alamogordo Bombing Range, New Mexico ( 33°40'30.00"N, 106°28'30.00"W) was the site of the first atmospheric atomic bomb test which took place on July 16, 1945. The test was part of the federal government’s top-secret program, the Manhattan Project—the United States’ war-time effort to create the first atomic bomb—and was conducted and overseen by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). The test took place less than three years after the first demonstration of a controlled fission chain reaction by Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago, Illinois on December 2, 1942. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), under contract to the MED, was in charge of much of the planning and testing that led up to the test at the Trinity Site. The Scientific Director of the Manhattan Project, Julius Robert Oppenheimer, along with... More »
Peat Last Updated on 2014-06-24 17:43:39 Peat is the partially decomposed remains of plant material, especially sphagnum moss. It is found in a wetlands environment where the addition of new plant material is faster than the decomposition of the accumulated plant material. A number of essential conditions that contribute to peat formation is provided in a wetlands: the plant material remains waterlogged, the temperature is low and there is a lack of oxygen both of which slow decomposition. “Wetlands” include floodplains, marshes, swamps, and coastal wetlands. Peat is the first material formed in the process that transforms plant matter into coal. As coal formation progresses, volatile materials like water are driven off, and the percentage of carbon content of the material increases, making it increasingly dense and hard. The majority of the peat harvested is called reed-sedge peat. The other harvested... More »
Los Alamos National Laboratory Last Updated on 2014-06-18 18:15:17 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), located in Los Alamos, New Mexico, is one of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories. It is noteworthy as the site where the world's first nuclear weapon was developed under a heavy cloak of secrecy during World War II, and has been known variously as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Today, it is recognized as one of the world's leading science and technology institutes. Since June 2006, LANL has been managed and operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS).[1] LANL's self-stated mission is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear deterrent.[2] Its research work serves to advance bioscience, chemistry, computer science, Earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. The Manhattan Project was the... More »
Malaysia Natural Resources Last Updated on 2014-06-11 16:41:01 The natural resources of Malaysia include water resources, energy, fisheries, forests, air resources, agriculture and minerals. An outline of these topics is presented below linked to articles within the Encyclopedia of Earth: Malaysia- FAO Information System on Water and Agriculture Malaysia Water Resources and Freshwater Ecosystems Factsheet Water Profile of Malaysia Malaysia Summary Factsheet Energy profile of Malaysia South China Sea Sulu Sea Celebes Sea Malaysia - Forests, Grasslands, and Drylands Factsheet Forests of Borneo Borneo peat swamp forests Borneo lowland rainforests Borneo montane rainforests Sundaland heath forests Sunda Shelf mangroves Peninsular Malaysia peat swamp forests Peninsular Malaysia montane rainforests Peninsular Malaysia lowland rainforests Climate of Malaysia Malaysia- FAO Information System on Water and... More »
Photovoltaics Last Updated on 2014-06-10 18:44:01 In recent decades the imminence of an energy crisis has become a common discussion topic. We will eventually deplete all fossil fuels that can be economically extracted.[1] Depletion is not the only issue involved in the use of fossil fuels; the combustion process releases carbon dioxide which can or is changing global climate. Fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, and oil, are the most common energy sources used today. When combusted to create energy, these fuels release large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These emissions cause a warming effect on the planet. The exact results of this warming are not certain, but most predictions verge on the catastrophic. In order to curb this warming effect and free ourselves from fossil fuel use, we must reduce, and ultimately replace, them as an energy source. One promising renewable energy source involves capturing... More »