Human history can be told in terms of the history of energy. The discovery of fire, the domestication of animals, the discovery of fossil fuels, the electrification of cities, the oil wars in the Middle East, and advances in nuclear physics are all pivotal points in human history. Energy is a multifaceted concept; it is central to science and education, it plays pivotal role in economic growth, and it has a dominant position in international affairs. Conventional energy sources are major sources of environmental stress at global as well as local levels. Emissions from fossil fuels drive a range of global and regional environmental changes, including global climate change, acid deposition and urban smog. Coal mining disturbs vast areas of natural habitat, hydropower development can have significant environmental and social costs, and the exploration for and extraction of oil and natural gas can have significant impacts, particularly in sensitive ecosystems
A greenhouse gas is one of several gases that can absorb and emit longwave (infrared) radiation in a planetary atmosphere. This phenomenon is often termed the greenhouse...
Complex SystemsLast Updated on 2013-10-24 15:13:11
As Science has begun to ask where the enduring features of nature come from and how they work, the answer seems to be “complex systems”. Every kind of thing and event seems to require them. As the science has advanced, and as the modern problems of economies and environmental conflicts emerge, a new kind of science is emerging that requires being very openly exploratory, using all the tools and combining all the related perspectives of others, to develop complex knowledge systems matching the variety of the complex system problems they respond to.
Systems are storms or “like storms” in many respects, complex distributed phenomena that may be either unexpectedly eventful or highly predictable. There’s still a rather wide range of opinion within science as to what complex systems are, even whether they are made of information or... More »
Public Health Statement for EthylbenzeneLast Updated on 2013-09-18 20:41:06This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE.
This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.
This public health statement tells you about ethylbenzene and the... More »
Public Health Statement for Fuel OilsLast Updated on 2013-09-18 20:33:07This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE.
CAS# 8008-20-6, 70892-10-3, 68476-30-2, 68476-34-6, 68476-31-3
This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Fuel Oils. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.
This Statement was prepared to give you... More »
Technological innovationLast Updated on 2013-09-12 19:33:19Technology innovation is the process through which new (or improved) technologies are developed and brought into widespread use. In the simplest formulation, innovation can be thought of as being composed of research, development, demonstration, and deployment, although it is abundantly clear that innovation is not a linear process - there are various interconnections and feedback loops between these stages, and often even the stages themselves cannot be trivially disaggregated. Innovation involves the involvement of a range of organizations and personnel (laboratories, firms, financing organizations, etc.), with different institutional arrangements underpinning the development and deployment of different kinds of technologies; contextual factors such as government policies also significantly shape the innovation process. In the energy area, technology innovation has helped expand... More »
Renewable energyLast Updated on 2013-09-12 19:31:05
Renewable energy sources are those that are naturally available and replenished. Renewable energy sources include solar, wind, hydro (water), geothermal, Tidal power or ocean wave energy, and biomass. Non-renewable energy sources, such as the combustion of fossil fuels, rely on a limited supply that can be considered non-renewable since they are replenished slowly (or not at all). Because of their finite supply, non-renewable energy sources can become more difficult and costly to extract as their supplies decrease. In addition, recovery of fossil fuels can eventually be damaging to the environment, such as in the case of oil drilling and /or mining.
Use of renewable energy sources reduces dependence on fossil fuels, diversifies energy resources, and reduces the emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants associated with fossil fuels. While there are many benefits to the use... More »
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