Atmospheric science is a broad field of scientific knowledge that includes a number of sub-disciplines that study the phenomena and processes found in the atmosphere of Earth and even other planets. Atmospheric science includes the sub-disciplines of meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric physics.Atmospheric scientists often study how the phenomena and processes found in other systems, including the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere, interact dynamically with the atmosphere.
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Complex SystemsLast Updated on 2013-10-24 15:13:11
As Science has begun to ask where the enduring features of nature come from and how they work, the answer seems to be “complex systems”. Every kind of thing and event seems to require them. As the science has advanced, and as the modern problems of economies and environmental conflicts emerge, a new kind of science is emerging that requires being very openly exploratory, using all the tools and combining all the related perspectives of others, to develop complex knowledge systems matching the variety of the complex system problems they respond to.
Systems are storms or “like storms” in many respects, complex distributed phenomena that may be either unexpectedly eventful or highly predictable. There’s still a rather wide range of opinion within science as to what complex systems are, even whether they are made of information or... More »
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United StatesLast Updated on 2013-10-12 23:55:15
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a federal agency within the United States Department of Commerce. As a science-based operational agency tasked with monitoring climate and changes in the environment, NOAA is responsible for the study of the atmosphere and the oceans. The agency issues daily weather forecasts and storm warnings, restores coastline, aids the flow of marine commerce, and manages fisheries. NOAA's activities facilitate weather- and climate-sensitive economic activity that account for roughly one-third of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The agency also responds to natural and man-made maritime disasters, operates a complex network of oceanographic, meteorological and atmospheric data-collecting products and services, and manages marine mammals, marine endangered... More »
AERMOD Last Updated on 2013-10-05 15:00:30AERMOD is the latest generation air dispersion model designed for short-range (up to 50 kilometers) dispersion of air pollutant emissions from stationary industrial sources. It is a steady-state plume model incorporating dispersion based on planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence structure and scaling, and it accomodates surface and elevated emission sources as well as simple or complex terrain.
As of December 9, 2005, the U.S. EPA designated AERMOD as the preferred model to be used for compliance with any federal and state air pollution dispersion modeling requirements. As of November 9, 2006, AERMOD completely replaces the previous preferred model known as the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model.
The AERMOD system integrates three modules:
A steady-state Gaussian dispersion model designed for short-range dispersion of continuous emissions from stationary... More »
National Center for Atmospheric ResearchLast Updated on 2013-08-21 02:53:16The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a non-governmental institute, based in the United States, whose stated mission is "exploring and understanding our atmosphere and its interactions with the Sun, the oceans, the biosphere, and human society."
NCAR's flagship Mesa Laboratory is located in the outskirts of Boulder, Colorado, in a dramatic complex of buildings designed by the renowned architect I. M. Pei. The site is maintained as a nature preserve.
The Mesa Laboratory includes science exhibits, an educational resource center, a library, and art galleries all of which open to the general public.
NCAR is headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, with most activity taking place on three campuses:
NCAR Mesa Laboratory: in the southwest outskirts of Boulder Foothills
Laboratory and Center Green Campus: in northeast Boulder Research
Aviation Facility: at... More »
DerechoLast Updated on 2012-07-25 00:00:00
Two types of derecho may be distinguished based largely on the organization and behavior of the associated derecho-producing convective system. The type of derecho most often encountered during the spring and fall is a serial derecho. The second type is a progressive derecho, associated with a relatively short line of thunderstorms.
Derechos are widespread, long-lived windstorms associated with a band of rapidly moving showers or thunderstorms. Coined by Dr. Gustavus Hinrichs in 1888, "derechos", a Spanish word which means "direct" or "straight ahead".
Although a derecho's strength can produce destruction similar to tornadoes, the damage pattern produced by these events will occur along relatively straight lines. Thus the term, straight-line wind damage.
Derechos are produced by a family of downbursts clusters. Downburst... More »
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