Botany is the field of basic biological science that focuses on the study and inquiry into the growth, form, structure and function, development, diversity, reproduction, evolution, and uses of plants; and their interactions within the biosphere. The term botany derives from the Latin botanicus and the Greek botane, both meaning plant or herb. The field is known also as plant science, phytology, or plant biology. Additional foci include plant physiology and metabolism, diseases, phycology and mycology, chemical properties, taxonomy and systematics, molecular biology, and paleobotany.
Botany traces its beginnings to human activity designed to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants. It is one of the earliest sciences.
Poor indoor air quality has been linked to health problems. This article, written by Dr. Luz Claudio*, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the...
Alberta Mountain forestsLast Updated on 2015-01-16 14:48:16
WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection
The Alberta Mountain forests ecoregion lies entirely within Canada and almost fully within the province of Alberta, but hugs the Alberta-British Columbia border from Banff northward to Jasper and Kakwa. The ecoregion is classified within the Temperate Coniferous Forests biome.
Mean annual temperature in the Eastern Continental Ranges is 2.5°C, mean summer temperature is 12°C and mean winter temperature is -7.5°C. Precipitation increases from east to west and also with elevation, from 600-800 millimetres (mm) per year. Valley regions are marked by warm, dry summers and mild, snowy winters, and subalpine areas have cool, showery summers and cold, snowy winters.
This region covers the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, incorporating the eastern flanks of the Continental Ranges. The major peaks cluster... More »
Eastern Canadian forestsLast Updated on 2015-01-09 19:46:14
WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions Collection
The Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion is distinguished from the Central Canadian Shield forests by a greater maritime influence, and a dominant tree, Balsam fir, as the climatic climax species. The Eastern Canadian forests, part of the Nearctic Realm, characterise forested land in eastern Quebec, much of Newfoundland, and disjunct occurrences in the highlands of New Brunswick, and Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia; in all, this ecoregion comprises seven major disjunctive geographic units.
The ecoclimate of this ecoregion ranges from high and mid-boreal and perhumid mid-boreal to Oceanic, Atlantic, and Maritime mid-boreal. Summers are generally cool, with average temperatures ranging between 8.5°C in the north to 14.5°C in the south. Winter temperatures vary according to proximity to the ocean and... More »
Mississippi RiverLast Updated on 2014-11-29 22:15:22The Mississippi River drains the largest river basin in North America, and is one of the major rivers of the world.
The Mississippi River watershed is the fourth largest in the world, extending from the Allegheny Mountains in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west. The watershed includes all or parts of 31 states and two Canadian provences. The watershed measures approximately 1.2 million square miles (3.1 million square kilometers), covering about 40% of the lower 48 states. The Mississippi drains most of the United States between the Appalachian Mountains in the east and the Rocky Mountains in the West.
The mainstream of the Mississippi River has headwaters rising at Lake Itasca, Minnesota and flows approximately 2340 miles (3765 km). Though the longest part of the river includes the the Missouri River which flows approximately 2540 miles (4088 km) before joining the... More »
Aquatic plantsLast Updated on 2014-11-09 18:55:53
Aquatic plants grow in shallow to deep water zones. The three main types of aquatic plants are (1) single-celled phytoplankton, (2) periphyton (algae growing attached to substrates) and (3) multicellular macrophytes. Phytoplankton includes several groups of algae (e.g., green algae, golden brown algae, euglenophytes, dinoflagelates, and diatoms) and one group of photosynthetic bacteria (Cyanobacteria). Planktonic algae may be either benthic (attached to a substrate) or planktonic (floating in the water column). There are large numbers of phytoplankton (> 400 species) in many bodies of freshwater; phytoplankton are most common in habitats with high nutrient levels.
Periphyton may grow attached to other plants (ephytic periphyton) or on rocks and other substrate (epibenthic periphyton). Typically, periphyton is made up of a diatoms, a variety of filamentous algae... More »
PlantLast Updated on 2014-10-28 12:04:37
A plant is any one of the vast number of organisms within the biological kingdom Plantae; in general, these species are considered of limited motility and generally manufacture their own food. They include a host of familiar organisms including trees, forbs, shrubs, grasses, vines, ferns, and mosses. Conventionally the term plant implies a taxon with characteristics of multicellularity, cell structure with walls containing cellulose, and organisms capable of photosynthesis. Modern classification schemes are driven by somewhat rigid categorizations inherent in DNA and common ancestry.
Throughout most of the history of science from Aristotle to Linnaeus and into the 20th century, species were divided into two kingdoms: animals and plants. Driven by DNA characterizations and other modern analysis, fungi and bacteria have now been removed to separate kingdoms; in particular,... More »
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