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Fisheries

A fishery can be defined as an entity involved in the raising of fish through aquaculture or the harvesting of wild fish in oceans, seas and freshwater. Humans have relied on aquatic resources for sustenance and survival for centuries yet with the advent of improved fishing vessels, techniques, tools, and equipment as well as technology coupled with growing demands for resources, the rate of exploitation has reached unprecedented rates raising fears about the inevitable collapse of aquatic ecosystems. Rapacious techniques such as bottom trawling or use of large nets modify marine ecosystems by physically altering habitats, reducing biodiversity and disrupting food chains. There is also a growing concern that fisheries have reached their global maximum potential as many valuable fish stocks have already been depleted, leading to the exploitation of less valuable fish.

 

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What Is Aquaculture? Last Updated on 2014-04-02 15:37:09 The term aquaculture broadly refers to the cultivation of aquatic organisms in controlled aquatic environments for any commercial, recreational or public purpose. The breeding, rearing and harvesting of plants and animals takes place in all types of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes, the ocean, and man-made “closed” systems on land. Aquaculture serves many purposes including: Food production for human consumption; Rebuilding of populations of threatened and endangered species; Habitat restoration; Wild stock enhancement; Production of baitfish; and Fish culture for zoos and aquariums. It is one of the fastest growing forms of food production in the world. Because harvest from many wild fisheries has peaked globally, aquaculture is widely recognized as an effective way to meet the seafood demands of a growing population. Using aquaculture... More »
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United States Last Updated on 2013-10-12 23:55:15 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a federal agency within the United States Department of Commerce.  As a science-based operational agency tasked with monitoring climate and changes in the environment, NOAA is responsible for the study of the atmosphere and the oceans.  The agency issues daily weather forecasts and storm warnings, restores coastline, aids the flow of marine commerce, and manages fisheries.  NOAA's activities facilitate weather- and climate-sensitive economic activity that account for roughly one-third of the country's gross domestic product (GDP)[1]. The agency also responds to natural and man-made maritime disasters, operates a complex network of oceanographic, meteorological and atmospheric data-collecting products and services, and manages marine mammals, marine endangered... More »
Fisheries and aquaculture in the Northeast Atlantic (Barents and Norwegian Seas) Last Updated on 2013-10-01 23:52:20 This is Section 13.2 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Authors: Hjálmar Vilhjálmsson, Alf Håkon Hoel; Contributing Authors: Sveinn Agnarsson, Ragnar Arnason, James E. Carscadden, Arne Eide, David Fluharty, Geir Hønneland, Carsten Hvingel, Jakob Jakobsson, George Lilly, Odd Nakken,Vladimir Radchenko, Susanne Ramstad,William Schrank, Niels Vestergaard,Thomas Wilderbuer   The potential impacts of climate change on the fisheries in the arctic area of the Northeast Atlantic are explored in this article. The area comprises the northern and eastern parts of the Norwegian Sea to the south, and the north Norwegian and northwest Russian coasts and the Barents Sea to the east and north. The fisheries are located in areas under Norwegian and Russian jurisdictions as well as in international waters. The total fisheries haul in the area were around 2.1... More »
Fisheries and aquaculture in the Central North Atlantic (Iceland and Greenland) Last Updated on 2013-09-05 00:41:11 This is Section 13.3 of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Lead Authors: Hjálmar Vilhjálmsson, Alf Håkon Hoel; Contributing Authors: Sveinn Agnarsson, Ragnar Arnason, James E. Carscadden, Arne Eide, David Fluharty, Geir Hønneland, Carsten Hvingel, Jakob Jakobsson, George Lilly, Odd Nakken,Vladimir Radchenko, Susanne Ramstad,William Schrank, Niels Vestergaard,Thomas Wilderbuer   This section deals with the marine ecosystems of Iceland and Greenland. Although there are large differences, both physical and biological, between these two ecosystems there are also many similarities.Seafood exports represent a major source of revenue for both Iceland and Greenland. Figure 13.5 shows the locations of the sites referred to most frequently in the text. Figure 13.5. Location map for the Iceland/Greenland area. The arrows show the main surface ocean... More »
Which fish should I eat? Last Updated on 2013-09-03 12:09:16 Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish dietary choices, clear and simple guidance is needed to effect wise consumption of wild and domesticated fisheries resources. This Review article, written by Emily Oken, Anna L. Choi, Margaret R. Karagas, Koenraad Mariën, Christoph M. Rheinberger, Rita Schoeny, Elsie Sunderland, and Susan Korrick* appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the peer-reviewed, open access journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption... More »