Epidemiology

Epidemiology is a medical (and environmental health) sub-discipline that focuses on the occurrence, and the determination of the origins and patterns of disease within human populations (and significantly, not in or for individuals). The word epidemiology derives from the Greek words epi (meaning upon), demos (meaning the people), and logia (meaning the study of). The term is applicable, strictly, to such study only in human populations.

 

Epidemiology is a fundament of public health practice and research.

 

Image: CDC

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Recently Updated
Healthy Community Design Last Updated on 2014-06-29 19:10:40 The way we design and build our communities can affect our physical and mental health. Healthy community design integrates evidence-based health strategies into community planning, transportation, and land-use decisions. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that healthy community design can improve people’s health by: Increasing physical activity; Reducing injury; Increasing access to healthy food; Improving air and water quality; Minimizing the effects of climate change; Decreasing mental health stresses; Strengthening the social fabric of a community; and Providing fair access to livelihood, education, and resources. According to the World Health Organization, health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of infirmity. A healthy community as described by the U.S. Department of Health and... More »
Lifestyle, technology and CO2 emissions in China Last Updated on 2014-06-28 17:59:40 Introduction China as the world’s largest developing country and the most populous country has achieved notable success in developing their economy with approximate 10 percent average annual growth of GDP over the last two decades [1-3]. Large sections of the population have been experiencing a transition from ‘poverty’ to ‘adequate food and clothing’; today growing parts of the population are getting closer to ‘well to do’ lifestyles [3]. However, the rapid growth of the economy has not only lead to dramatic changes of wealth and people’s lifestyle, but has also caused a huge amount of resources and energy consumption and associated CO2 and other emissions creating serious environmental problems on both local, regional and global scales [4-6]. Between 1990 and 2004 China’s total energy consumption has grown 5.0% annually from... More »
Plastic products and estrogenic chemicals Last Updated on 2014-06-14 12:26:55 Chemicals that mimic or antagonize the actions of naturally occurring estrogens are defined as having estrogenic activity (EA), which is the most common form of endocrine disruptor activity. This article, written by Chun Z. Yang, Stuart I. Yaniger, V. Craig Jordan, Daniel J. Klein, and George D. Bittner* appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the peer-reviewed, open access journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved Background: Chemicals having estrogenic activity (EA) reportedly cause many adverse health... More »
Public Health Statement for Chlorpyrifos Last Updated on 2013-09-28 16:20:23 This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE. September 1997 En Español CAS# 2921-88-2 This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for chlorpyrifos. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This public health statement tells you about chlorpyrifos... More »
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