California, situated on the Pacific coast of the USA, is the third largest state of the United States in land area and most populous state. The 2009 population...
Chesapeake Bay oyster depletionLast Updated on 2013-10-05 01:13:04Chesapeake Bay oyster depletion has occurred significantly in the period 1960 to 2010. This depletion is caused by a number of factors, including water quality, disease and over harvesting. The native oyster to the Chesapeake Bay and all Atlantic Coast regions is the American or Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica. The Bay's ecological conditions are ideal for oysters, and the oyster fishery was at one time the Bay's most commercially viable enterprises. However, in the last fifty years the oyster population has been devastated. Maryland once had roughly 200,000 acres of oyster reefs; in 2010 it has about 36,000 such reefs. In pre-colonial times, oysters filtered the entirety of the Chesapeake Bay in approximately 3.3 days; by 1988 this time had increased to 325 days. The oyster harvest's gross value has decreased 88% from 1982 to 2007. Today there are fewer... More »
Agriculture-based biofuelsLast Updated on 2013-09-30 14:20:59
Since the late 1970s, U.S. policymakers at both the federal and state levels have enacted a variety of incentives, regulations, and programs to encourage the production and use of agriculture-based biofuels. Initially, federal biofuels policies were developed to help kick-start the biofuels industry during its early development, when neither production capacity nor a market for the finished product was widely available. Federal policy has played a key role in helping to close the price gap between biofuels and cheaper petroleum fuels. Now, as the industry has evolved, other policy goals (e.g., national energy security, climate change concerns, support for rural economies) are cited by proponents as justification for continuing policy support.
The U.S. biofuels sector has responded to these government incentives by expanding output every year since 1996, with important... More »
WheatLast Updated on 2013-09-11 15:43:44Wheat is any of a number of species of the genus Triticum within the grass family of Poaceae.
Wheat is an important grain food crop supplying the second highest caloric intake for humans, closely behind rice. Wheat is used to produce flour for bread, pasta, couscous and other foods.
However, wheat generally consumes large amounts of nitrate and other fertilizers, so that the outcome of widespread wheat farming is often associated with extensive water pollution impacts, expecially related to nitrate laden runoff.
Wheat is one of the earliest cultivated crops, and has a clear association with the emergence of sedentary agriculture around twelve millennia ago.
Products Made From Wheat: 1. Crossaint; 2. Wheat Flour; 3. Noodles;
4. Wheat Dalia; 5. Sewai; 6. Refined Wheat Flour; 7. Common Brown Bread;
8. ... More »
Land use profile of ChinaLast Updated on 2013-08-25 16:46:51
The story of land use in China over the last century is as dramatic as the tale of the country's radical economic transformation. Endless acres of rural lands, that just a few decades ago were farmed by peasant collectives as part of Mao Zedong's massive agricultural campaigns, today host brand new condominium developments, as China's cities rapidly fan out past their existing boundaries. Giant factories dot the countryside in even the most remote provinces and manufacture all sorts of goods for export into the international market. In many ways, this process of shifting landscapes indicates an accumulation of wealth in regions that still suffer considerably from high poverty rates.
The human cost of the rural construction boom can often be measured in the number of displaced peasant families, who typically have little recourse to prevent the repurposing of their... More »
NitrateLast Updated on 2013-08-11 10:09:48Nitrate is a polyatomic ion having a molecular formula NO3- and molecular mass of 62.0049 grams per mole. This ion is the conjugate base of HNO3, its geometry consistng of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically-bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries an electrical charge of minus one, arising from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygen atoms carries a fractional two thirds charge, whereas the nitrogen atom carries a plus one charge, all these adding up to minus one formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion. This atomic arrangement is often invoked as a classic example of chemical resonance. Similar to the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures.
Nitrate is a very important chemical soil amendment responsible for a major portion of the agricultural... More »
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