Located above the surface of our planet is a complex mixture of gases and suspended liquid and solid particles known as the atmosphere. Operating within the atmosphere is a variety of processes we call weather. Some measurable variables associated with weather include air temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind, and precipitation. The atmosphere also contains organized phenomena that include things like tornadoes, thunderstorms, mid-latitude cyclones, hurricanes, and monsoons. Climate refers to the general pattern of weather for a region over specific period of time. Scientists have discovered that human activities can influence Earth’s climate and weather producing problems like global warming, ozone depletion, and acid precipitation.
Antarctic Ice: An 800,000 Year Record of Climate Change provides an extraordinary opportunity for scientists to reconstruct climate events of the past. Scientists have recently...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United StatesLast Updated on 2013-10-12 23:55:15
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a federal agency within the United States Department of Commerce. As a science-based operational agency tasked with monitoring climate and changes in the environment, NOAA is responsible for the study of the atmosphere and the oceans. The agency issues daily weather forecasts and storm warnings, restores coastline, aids the flow of marine commerce, and manages fisheries. NOAA's activities facilitate weather- and climate-sensitive economic activity that account for roughly one-third of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The agency also responds to natural and man-made maritime disasters, operates a complex network of oceanographic, meteorological and atmospheric data-collecting products and services, and manages marine mammals, marine endangered... More »
AntarcticaLast Updated on 2013-10-03 22:02:28
The continent of Antarctica is located almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, (66.5 degrees south Latitude). Only the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the fringes of Wilkes Land protrude north of that line.
Roughly centered on the geographic South Pole (coordinates: 90° 00' S, 0° 00' E.), it's total area of Antarctica is 14 million sq km (it's ice-free land area is 280,000 sq km while about 13.72 million sq km is ice-covered).
It is the fifth largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, containing 8.9% of the Earth's land area; and it is larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe. It is slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the United States.
The antarctic coastline measures about 17,968 km. All of Antarctica utilizes New Zealand Time.
Speculation over the existence of an "unknown... More »
General GlossaryLast Updated on 2013-10-02 09:39:36This general glossary compiles definitions of specialized terms used throughout the Encyclopedia of Earth. Each term listed below has had a blue link created to allow authors to link to the given term in any article without having the reader leave the page. The terms below are words or phrases for which an entire article on the Encylopedia of Earth is not necessarily envisioned:
Allohexaploidcells holding six copies of each chromosome: Cells holding six copies of each chromosome
AnuranAn amphibian that has limbs but no tail (includes all frogs and toads): An amphibian that has limbs but no tail (includes all frogs and toads)
ArheicRegion which generates no significant surface water runoff: Region that generates no significant surface water runoff
Atomic numberThe number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom: The number of protons in the nucleus of a given... More »
Antarctic PeninsulaLast Updated on 2013-10-01 23:21:36
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost element of mainland Antarctica, and the only part of the continent of Antarctica that extends outside the Antarctic Circle.
It is approximately 1200 miles (2000 km) long, stretching from 75°S (a drawn between Cape Adams (Weddell Sea) and a point on the mainland south of Eklund Islands) to 63°S (Prime Head on the Trinity Peninsula). The southern tip of South America, Cape Horn is about 610 miles (980 km) farther north, and is separated by the Drake Passage.
Other names applying to the region include: Tierra de O'Higgins (Chile), Tierra de San Martín (Argentina) and Península Antártica (other Spanish speaking countries). It has the mildest climate in Antarctica and contains the only two flowering plant species on the entire continent.
While Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom have made... More »
Climate and economy: dynamically integrated general equilibrium modelLast Updated on 2013-08-26 14:10:00
Climate affects economic behaviors. Economic activities in return affect climate. Until recently, however, people were not conscious of the effects of economic activities on the atmosphere and climate since climate has been deemed stable for a long time. Due mainly to the lack of transportation and geographic divisions of the major civilizations across different climate zones, climate was regarded a given fact of life from the beginning to the end of one's life. Today, however, one can choose a climate he wants to live in by migrating to a place of his choice while humanity itself is faced with the challenges of a warming world.
Economic activities affect climate conditions by way of energy consumption and land-use changes. World economies heavily depend on fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas for electricity, industrial production, and... More »
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