Society & Environment

At the present time many issues that are of interest to the general public have an environmental dimension. This ranges from natural and human-caused disasters to concerns about climate change and energy needs. The discussion of environmental topics was probably not very prominent in the formal education of most citizens so other modes of communication and participation have developed over recent years. This includes the work of various advocacy groups as well as museums, zoos and other informal education venues. The EoE aims to provide accurate environmental information to assist readers at all levels in making personal choices that relate to our world.

  • Cats, Toxoplasma, and Schizophrenia Featured Article Cats, Toxoplasma, and Schizophrenia Cats, Toxoplasma, and Schizophrenia

    In humans, acute infection withToxoplasmosis can produce psychotic symptoms similar to those displayed by persons with schizophrenia. This article written by E. Fuller Torrey... More »

  • California Featured Article California California

    California, situated on the Pacific coast of the USA,  is the third largest state of the United States in land area and most populous state. The 2009 population... More »

  • Economy of Ancient Greece Featured Article Economy of Ancient Greece Economy of Ancient Greece

    The economy of ancient Greece is somewhat of an enigma. Given the remoteness of ancient Greek civilization, the evidence is minimal and difficulties of interpretation abound.... More »

  • Rooftop runoff contamination Featured Article Rooftop runoff contamination Rooftop runoff contamination

    [The lead author of this article is Dennis Lye] Rooftop runoff contamination is receiving increasing attention as environmental and health issues, particularly as human... More »

  • Light pollution Featured Article Light pollution Light pollution

      Light pollution is the intrusion of unwanted or unneeded artificial light into a man-made or natural environment. A variety of somewhat separate phenomena comprise the... More »

  • Egypt Featured Article Egypt Egypt

    Egypt is a nation of eighty-four million people in north-Africa, it also controls the Sinai Peninsula, part of the Middle East and western-Asia. Thus, Egypt controls the only... More »

  • Guatemala Featured Article Guatemala Guatemala

    Guatemala is a Central American nation of fourteen million people located between Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize. Its western coast fronts to Pacific Ocean and... More »

  • Japan Featured Article Japan Japan

    Japan is a nation on 127 million people in Eastern Asia; an island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula. Japan is... More »

  • Libya Featured Article Libya Libya

    Libya is a nation of six-and-three-quarters million people in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt to the east and Tunisia and Algeria to the... More »

Recently Updated
Food Biodiversity Challenges From a Global Perspective Last Updated on 2014-07-25 14:03:15 Food collection or gathering has been an important part of human endeavors towards establishing civilization across the long history of human evolution. Humans have demonstrated their ingenuity in identifying and locating new and novel food sources located in their immediate surrounding and during their migration across the planet. Humans have become more successful than other species because of their better foraging abilities and coordinated group work in identifying and locating novel food sources over time. This trial and error approach has enabled humans over time to identify suitable food sources from their local environments. Over time, humans have identified more species that are edible or could be made edible using primitive to modern day recipes and cooking techniques. These long years of trial and errors have generated a wide range of food sources for... More »
Population-environment theory and contemporary applications Last Updated on 2014-07-24 15:49:49 Introduction Humans have sought to understand the relationship between population dynamics and the environment since the earliest times (1-3), but it was Thomas Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798 that is credited with launching the study of population and resources as a scientific topic of inquiry. Malthus’ famous hypothesis was that population numbers tend to grow exponentially while food production grows linearly, never quite keeping pace with population and thus resulting in natural “checks” (such as famine) to further growth. Although the subject was periodically taken up again in the ensuring decades, it wasn’t until the 1960s that significant research interest was rekindled. In 1963 the U.S. National Academy of Sciences published The Growth of World Population, a report that reflected scientific concern about the consequences of... More »
Malaysia (collection) Last Updated on 2014-07-01 17:16:22 Welcome to the Malaysia Collection!  The purpose of this collection is to provide a reliable on-line resource for information about the ecology, biodiversity, environmental issues of Malaysia.  The Malaysia Collection is the first collection on the EoE to focus on a single nation.  The Malaysia Collection is very  much a work in progress.  Development of the Malaysia Collection is currently spearheaded by Mark McGinley, the Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Earth and an Associate Professor at Texas Tech University. Malaysian scholars, or international scholars working in Malaysia, are invited to contribute to the Malaysia Collection by serving as Authors and Topic Editors.  In addition, university instructors are invited to have students write articles for the EoE as... More »
Technological Nightmares (Lecture): Note on the “Precautionary Principle” Last Updated on 2014-07-01 15:53:44       Series: Pardee Center Distinguished Lecture Series Date: October 2003 Location: Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Boston University, Boston, MA There are two points of view when we face risk and uncertainties in our research. One is based on the precautionary principle. The precautionary principle says that when there is any risk of a major disaster, no action should be permitted that increases the risk. If, as so often happens, an action promises to bring substantial benefits together with some risk of a major disaster, no balancing of benefits against risks is to be allowed. Any action carrying a risk of a major disaster must be prohibited, regardless of the costs of prohibition. The opposing point of view holds that risks are unavoidable, that no possible course of action or inaction will eliminate risks, and that a... More »
Urbanization Last Updated on 2014-06-29 18:43:46 Urbanization refers to a process whereby the building intensity of a high density human population increases or the number of people living in an urban area increase. Globally, this process has been on the rise for centuries; however, it has accelerated since the Industrial Revolution and was boosted again especially during the second half of the 20th century. The urbanization process was fueled mainly by migration from rural areas. The process usually comes to its end when urban population reaches a level of 80 to 90 percent of the total population of a country. Most developed countries reached this stage during the 20th century. Currently, at the beginning of the 21st century, urbanization is on the rise in most developing and less developed countries (Figure 1). Despite the fact that the urbanization process in any country may come to a leveling off, the growth of urban population... More »