A report released May 12, 2011, from the National Research Council reiterates the pressing need for substantial action to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare...
Nuclear powerLast Updated on 2015-08-28 08:36:17Nuclear power is the generation of electricity from controlled reactions within the nucleii of atoms that release energy used to boil water, the steam from which drives a turbine to generate electricity . All commercial nuclear plants presently rely upon nuclear fission reactions.
As of 2010, approximately 14 percent of the world's electricity was derived from nuclear power, chiefly centered in the United States (with 31% of the world's total nuclear power capacity), France (16%), and Japan (10%).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports that, as of November 21, 2012, there are 437 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries, plus Taiwan. Another 64 reactors under construction in 14 countries which if operational today would increase the worldwide electrical generation capacity of nuclear power by 17%. One hundred and forty reactors have been permanently... More »
Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress Last Updated on 2013-08-07 11:09:36
This article is drawn from CRS Report R43114: Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress by Frank Gottron, June 20, 2013
Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Public and private research and development spurs scientific and technological advancement. Such advances can drive economic growth, help address national priorities, and improve health and quality of life. The constantly changing nature and ubiquity of science and technology frequently creates public policy issues of congressional interest.
The federal government supports scientific and technological advancement by directly funding research and development and indirectly by creating and maintaining policies that encourage private sector efforts. Additionally, the federal government establishes and enforces regulatory frameworks... More »
U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel ReportLast Updated on 2012-07-24 00:00:00
U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel Report
In 2011, the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foundation initiated a major review of the U.S. Antarctic Program to examine U.S. logistical capabilities likely to be needed in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean during the next two decades and to seek ways to enhance logistical efficiency to support world-class science. The Panel conducted an independent review of the current U.S. Antarctic Program to identify and characterize a range of options for supporting and implementing the required national scientific endeavors, international collaborations, and strong U.S. presence in Antarctica.
Now, the 12-member Panel has released its report, More and Better Science in Antarctica through Increased Logistical Effectiveness. The report is a comprehensive document based on several months of research,... More »
Article: CDM - Clean Development Mechanism Last Updated on 2011-06-14 00:00:00
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the market-based mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol used by Countries with commitments under the Protocol to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in order to meet their emission targets. It has been operational since the beginning of 2006. As of mid-2011, there were 6,292 projects in the CDM pipeline (see CDM project cycle below).
Renewable energy projects account for nearly two-thirds of CDM projects and include such things as hydro, wind and biomass projects. Methane avoidance, landfill gas, afforestation and reforestation, and energy efficiency projec are also common CDM projects.
CDM projects are extremely similar to Joint Implementation (JI) projects, another of the market-based mechanisms under the Jyoto Protocol, with one major distinction: where the project is based. Under JI, an industrialized country... More »
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)Last Updated on 2011-05-18 00:00:00
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was created to address possible solutions and worldwide changes that United Nations Members could take part in to "reduce global warming and cope with whatever temperature increases were inevitable."
The UNFCCC sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Under the Convention, governments gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices. Governments also launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and... More »
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