Natural gas is extracted from oil wells, coal beds, natural gas fields, and landfills. After processing, natural gas contains a mixture of hydrocarbons: between 70% and 90%...
Marcellus Shale Gas Development and Healthy Waterways?Last Updated on 2012-08-08 00:00:00
The following Discovery article is part one in a series on the National Science Foundation's Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability (SEES) investment. Visit parts two, three, four, five, six and seven in this series.
The following is part one in a series on the National Science Foundation's Critical Zone Observatories (CZO). View part two in this series.
Can Marcellus Shale Gas Development
and Healthy Waterways Sustainably Coexist?
Sustainability Research Coordination Network is Providing Answers
Amity, Pennsylvania. Epicenter of the natural gas-containing geological formation known as the Marcellus Shale. Amity lies in Washington County near Anawanna, Pa. Once, Native Americans lived there. They named it Anawanna, or "the path of the water," in recognition of its many rivers and streams. Today the Native American Anawanna is... More »
Fossil fuel combustion flue gasesLast Updated on 2011-11-08 00:00:00
Fossil fuel combustion flue gases refer to the emissions of combustion product gases resulting from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
Most fossil fuels are combusted with ambient air being the oxidant (as differentiated from combustion with pure oxygen) and this article is based on the use of ambient air as the combustion air.
Discussion of flue gas components
Since ambient air contains about 79 volume percent gaseous nitrogen (N2), which is essentially non-combustible, the largest part of the flue gases from most fossil fuel combustion is uncombusted nitrogen. The next largest part of the flue gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) which can be as much as ten to fifteen volume percent or more of the flue gas. This is closely followed in volume by water vapor (H20) created by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel with atmospheric oxygen.... More »
Amine gas treatingLast Updated on 2011-10-07 00:00:00
Amine gas treating refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkanols (commonly referred to as simply "amines") to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. It is a common process unit used in petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants, petrochemical plants and other industries. The process is also known as acid gas removal and gas sweetening.
Processes within petroleum refineries or natural gas processing plants that remove hydrogen sulfide and/or mercaptans are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they result in products which no longer have the sour, foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide.
There are many different amines used in gas treating:
Diisopropylamine... More »
Claus processLast Updated on 2011-10-01 00:00:00
The process is commonly referred to as a sulfur recovery unit (SRU) and is very widely used to produce sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide found in raw natural gas and from the by-product sour gases containing hydrogen sulfide derived from the refining of petroleum crude oil and other industrial facilities.
Since it was first patented in the late 1880's, the Claus sulfur recovery process has become an industry-wide standard.
There are many hundreds of Claus sulfur recovery units in operation worldwide. In fact, the vast majority of the 68,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2010 was by-product sulfur from petroleum refining and natural gas processing plants.
Feed gas composition
Claus unit feed gases have a wide range of compositions. Most of the feed gases are originate from absorption processes using... More »
Natural gasLast Updated on 2011-09-20 00:00:00
Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane (CH4). It is found as a raw naturally occurring gas in underground reservoirs, as gas associated with underground reservoirs of petroleum crude oil, as undersea methane hydrates and as coalbed methane in underground coal mines. It is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for producing ammonia, hydrogen, petrochemicals and fertilizers.
Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas or fuel gas, especially when compared to other fossil fuel energy sources such as diesel oil, fuel oil or coal..
There are a great many different natural gas reservoirs worldwide and each of those gas deposits has a different composition. However, in general, most of them contain at least 80 to 90 volume percent of methane.
Before raw natural gas extracted from those reservoirs can be used as a fuel, it must... More »
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