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Internal Forcing

 Factors intrinsic to Earth and its atmosphere that influence climate include plate tectonic movements, volcanism, albedo, atmospheric composition, ocean circulation, and climate anomalies spread over long distances.

The June 12, 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Phillipines spewed vast amounts of sulfur dioxide and fine particles in the upper atmosphere. These materials reflected enough sunlight to lower global temperatures by as much as 0.5°C for nearly 2 years.

Dave Harlow, USGS



 Atmospheric Composition

 Ocean Circulation

 Orogeny & Epeirogeny






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