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Disease

The tick that trasmits Lyme disease

Maria Diuk-Wasser, Yale U.

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Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research Last Updated on 2011-08-15 00:00:00 The twentieth century was marked by significant advances in understanding of microbes and infectious disease. Nonetheless, disease pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and many needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. This article appeared first in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology operating under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth. A Systems... More »
Global Warming, Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ragweed Allergies Last Updated on 2011-02-23 00:00:00 Global Warming's High Carbon Dioxide Levels May Exacerbate Ragweed Allergies The U.S. Department of Agriculture has released research results indicating higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels associated with global warming may have doubled the amount of pollen that ragweed produces--mostly over the past four or five decades. Another doubling could occur by the end of this century. The research may help us better understand the impacts of high carbon dioxide levels on our environment and our health. In scientific studies, pollen production rose almost 400% with a 200% increase in the amount of CO2. Findings show that high CO2 levels have increased the potential production of ragweed pollen and may produce pollen earlier. The ragweed pollen season is now underway. Lewis H. Ziska, a plant physiologist with USDA's Agricultural Research Service, did the pollen counts on... More »
Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Last Updated on 2011-01-19 00:00:00 This Perspective article written by Douglas W. MacPherson, Brian D. Gushulak, William B. Baine, Shukal Bala, Paul O. Gubbins, Paul Holtom, and Marisel Segarra-Newnham*, appeared first in Emerging Infectious Diseases—a peer-reviewed, open access  journal published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expressly to promote the recognition of new and reemerging infectious diseases around the world and improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence,/ prevention, and elimination. The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of ... More »
Human Health: Rise in Temperatures Could Lead to Rise in Disease Last Updated on 2010-12-16 00:00:00 The fungal epidemic in amphibians demonstrates that global warming can be a major factor in the spread of pathogens. [1], [2] Of particular concern are human pathogens that spend part of their life cycle in host vectors (organisms that transmit diseases) that cannot regulate their temperature, such as bloodsucking insects. Pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoans (single-celled, eukaryotic organisms), and worms need to complete certain life stages within the lifespan of their host vector, and warmer temperatures speed their development. On the host vector side, warmer temperatures not only extend the range of cold-sensitive bloodsucking insects, but also increase their egg production and thus the frequency of their blood feeds. All of these factors serve to expand the range and to accelerate the spread of epidemics. Many cities were established at latitudes or altitudes that... More »