Vine-ripened tomato. Agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions.


  • Fuels From an Ancient Crop Featured Article Fuels From an Ancient Crop Fuels From an Ancient Crop

    ?Main Image:  Chemical engineer Akwasi Boateng (right) and mechanical engineer Neil Goldberg (center) adjust pyrolysis process conditions while chemist Charles Mullen... More »

  • Agricultural Health Study Featured Article Agricultural Health Study Agricultural Health Study

    Agricultural Health Study (AHS) The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa recruited in... More »

  • Svalbard Global Seed Vault Featured Article Svalbard Global Seed Vault Svalbard Global Seed Vault

    Svalbard Global Seed Vault The Svalbard Global Seed Vault, or the Doomsday Vault as the media have nicknamed it, was officially opened on February 26, 2008, to serve as the... More »

  • Climate Adaptation of Rice Featured Article Climate Adaptation of Rice Climate Adaptation of Rice

    Climate Adaptation of Rice Symbiogenics: A New Strategy for Reducing Climate Impacts on Plants Rice–which provides nearly half the daily calories for the... More »

  • Sonoran Bumblebee Featured Article Sonoran Bumblebee Sonoran Bumblebee

    Bombus sonorus, the Sonoran Bumblebee The Sonoran bumblebee, Bombus sonorus, is a large and colorful native bee of the Sonoran desert and much of the western United States.... More »

  • Perdita minima Featured Article Perdita minima Perdita minima

    Perdita minima "World’s Smallest Bee" Native bees come in all shapes and sizes. Many gardeners are familiar with the large black and yellow... More »

  • Phosphorus: A Paradox Featured Article Phosphorus: A Paradox Phosphorus: A Paradox

    Phosphate rock has emerged as a globally traded commodity linked to a diverse set of politically charged debates, ranging from environmental degradation and threats to human... More »

Recently Updated
International Food Security Assessment: 2012-22 Last Updated on 2012-08-11 00:00:00 Food security is estimated to improve slightly in 2012 as the number of food-insecure people in the 76 countries covered in this report declines from 814 million in 2011 to 802 million in 2012. The share of the population that is food insecure remains at 24 percent. Over the next decade, the share of the population that is food insecure is projected to decline from 24 percent in 2012 to 21 percent in 2022, but the number of food insecure people is projected to increase by 37 million. Regionally, food insecurity is projected to remain most severe in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food-insecure people are defined as those consuming less than the nutritional target of roughly 2,100 calories per day per person. International Food Security Assessment: 2012-22 The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service (ERS) has, since the late 1970s, reported annually on food security... More »
CIGAR Consortium Last Updated on 2012-07-09 12:25:24 The CGIAR Consortium is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. CGIAR Consortium The name CGIAR comes from the acronym for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. In 2008 the CGIAR underwent a major transformation. To reflect this and yet retain our roots we have kept CGIAR as our name. CGIAR research is dedicated to reducing rural poverty, increasing food security, improving human health and nutrition, and ensuring more sustainable management of natural resources. It is carried out by 15 Centers, that are members of the CGIAR Consortium, in close collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations, including national and regional research institutes, civil society organizations, academia, and the private sector. The 15 Research Centers generate and disseminate knowledge,... More »
Rufous hummingbird Last Updated on 2012-06-25 00:00:00 In strong sunlight, male Rufous hummingbirds put on quite a show with throat feathers flashing, a reddish orange iridescence brighter than a neon sign. The Rufous Hummingbird: Small but Feisty Long-Distance Migrant Many western and southwestern gardeners know the Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) as a delightful often-unexpected visitor to colorful garden wildflowers or hummingbird feeders. These amazing small but feisty birds (only 3 inches or 8cm long) weigh merely three or four grams; for comparison, a United States penny weighs slightly about 2.5 grams). These birds are amazing aerialists, darting in and out, and can be relentless attackers of other birds and insects at feeders and flowers. They have long slender nearly straight bills. Their wings are relatively short and do not reach the end of the tail when the birds are perched on a feeder or nearby branches.... More »
Predators: influence over habitats Last Updated on 2012-06-14 00:00:00 Study of grasshoppers' diets shows that animals are an important part of organic matter decomposition. While being hunted, prey animal diets may affect how soil releases carbon dioxide. Predators Have Outsized Influence Over Habitats A grasshopper's change in diet to high-energy carbohydrates while being hunted by spiders may affect the way soil releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, according to research results published in the journal Science. Grasshoppers like to munch on nitrogen-rich grass because it stimulates their growth and reproduction. But when spiders enter the picture, grasshoppers cope with the stress from fear of predation by shifting to carbohydrate-rich plants, setting in motion dynamic changes to the ecosystem they inhabit, scientists have found. "Under stressful conditions they go to different parts of the 'grocery store'... More »
Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Undernutrition Last Updated on 2012-01-02 00:00:00 This podcast with Sari Kovats of the Department of Social and Environmental Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine was produced by Ashley Ahearn*. It appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the peer-reviewed, open access journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences The article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by Encyclopedia of Earth editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the Encyclopedia of Earth. Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Undernutrition, with Sari Kovats Editor's Summary With more than 1 billion people estimated to not have enough to eat, food security is a pervasive problem. An estimated one-third of the global burden of disease afflicting children under the age of 5 is caused by... More »