Predator-prey relationships (that is, neither competitive nor mutualistic relationships) have been seen as providing the necessary stability for almost infinite numbers of species to exist in ecosystems. Such relationships do so by keeping the size of species populations in check at supportable levels.
Stefano Allesina and Si Tang, researchers at the University of Chicago, have studied such relationships. Their recent investigations have noted that, "When prey are high, predators increase and reduce the number of prey by predation. When predators are low, prey decrease and thus reduce the number of predators by starvation. These predator/prey relationships thereby promote stability in ecosystems and enable them to maintain large numbers of species.
By contrast, mutualistic relationships may reinforce the growth of large populations and competitive relationships may depress population numbers to the point of ecological instability."
The term carnivore is used in a variety of ways. The general ecological definition of a carnivore is an organism that feeds on animals, as opposed to feeding...
MammalLast Updated on 2014-10-15 22:58:09
Mammalia is a group of warm-blooded, air breathing vertebrates. With the common name mammal, each species is endowed with the characteristic of fur and three-boned middle ear; but the most remarkable element of group identity is an advanced brain element known as the neocortex, that functions as a center of complex cognition; no species except mammals have this well defined brain structure. Having pronounced inherent sexual dimorphism, the females have mammary glands capable of producing milk. There are approximately 5400 described mammalian species comprising around 1200 genera.
Mammals span a size range from the three centimeter Bumblebee Bat to the 33 meter long Blue Whale. Feeding habits vary widely among species, including carnivores and insectivores who prey on animals, to frugivores and granivores who eat fruit or seeds. Earliest mammals arose approximately 200 to 130... More »
EcosystemLast Updated on 2014-09-24 22:46:28An ecosystem is a community of organisms interacting with each other and with their environment such that energy is exchanged and system-level processes, such as the cycling of elements, emerge.
The ecosystem is a core concept in Biology and Ecology, serving as the level of biological organization in which organisms interact simultaneously with each other and with their environment. As such, ecosystems are a level above that of the ecological community (organisms of different species interacting with each other) but are at a level below, or equal to, biomes and the biosphere. Essentially, biomes are regional ecosystems, and the biosphere is the largest of all possible ecosystems.
Ecosystems include living organisms, the dead organic matter produced by them, the abiotic environment within which the organisms live and exchange elements (soils, water, atmosphere), and the interactions... More »
AmphibianLast Updated on 2014-09-09 10:57:59
The term amphibian comes from the Greek amphibios meaning "both lives". This is an apt description because most adult amphibians are better adapted to life on land than in water, while their larval phases are entirely aquatic.
For much of their lives, which may last a couple of months or several years depending on the species, larval amphibians bear little resemblance to their adult forms. Then something miraculous happens. In a matter of weeks or even days, the once fish-like larvae metamorphose into terrestrial, air-breathing quadrupeds!
There are three extant orders in the Class Amphibia: Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders), and Apoda (caecilians). The order Anura has the most extant species, with 4000 members worldwide. Of Caudata, 390 salamander species exist worldwide. The third amphibian group, the caecilians, is smaller still with a total of only 162... More »
Predator-prey cyclesLast Updated on 2014-07-08 14:53:04Predator-prey cycles are characterized by regularly spaced increases and decreases in the population sizes or densities of a predator and its prey. Classically, the predator is a carnivorous species and the prey is an herbivorous species. However, carnivores that prey on other carnivores, herbivores feeding on plants, and even parasites attacking their host organisms are sometimes considered to have the same relationship, and so to be predator-prey systems. The predator population’s fluctuations follow those of the prey population through time. That is, the prey population begins to increase while the predator population is still decreasing and the prey population decreases while the predator population is still increasing. The classic (and simplest) explanation of these cycles is that the predator drives the changes in the prey population (by catching and killing its members) and... More »
Metapopulation dynamics of wild dogs in South AfricaLast Updated on 2014-07-02 13:56:37
Ideally, species should be protected in areas large enough to allow for natural demographic and genetic processes. However, in realty, species often occur in small and isolated patches of suitable habitat embedded in human-dominated landscapes. In metapopulation ecology, landscapes are viewed as networks of habitat patches (fragments) in which species occur as discrete local populations connected by migration. The dynamics of such a metapopulation is characterised by (asynchronous) local extinction and recolonisation events.
However, human modification of the landscape between habitat patches, the so-called matrix, often prevents migration. While establishing ‘corridors’ through the matrix may allow dispersing individuals to move from one habitat patch to another, this is often problematic in practice. This raises the question of how metapopulation viability can be... More »
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