Ecology Theory

Ecology theory is the study of interactions among plant, animal, microbial and abiotic factors within an ecosystem.  Elements of this field include genetics, speciation, population dynamics, plant communities and predator/prey dynamics. The processes that relate to genetics include mutation, genetic drift and population bottlenecks. Within the interactions flora and fauna associations there are many types of mathematical models to explain the spatial relations and population dynamics of individual taxa. Besides models that depict the growth and decline, there are more specialized analyses which portray seed dispersal, migration patterns, symbioses and pollination. The abiotic factors of meteorology, soil and water chemistry are also vital in understanding the total ecological community.

The phenomena of autotrophism, herbivory and carnivory are intrinsic to ecology theory, in order to understand the complexity of the food web.  Processes disease transmission and organism decay are further inherent  elements;  further, within the realm of ecology theory are the phenomena of habitat fragmentation, refugia and biological corridors;  these larger scale features address the integrity of entire ecological communities and lead to strategies of conservation biology.  

  • Habitat fragmentation Featured Article Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation

    Habitat fragmentation involves alteration of habitat resulting in spatial separation of habitat units from a previous state of greater... More »

  • Respiration Featured Article Respiration Respiration

    Respiration is the gas exchange effected by living organisms for the purpose of sustaining vital metabolic processes. In the case of most animals, oxygen is taken into the... More »

  • Herbivore Featured Article Herbivore Herbivore

    A herbivore is an animal that obtains its energy and nutrients by feeding on plants.  Different types of herbivores eat different plant parts.  For example, folivores... More »

  • Sunlight Featured Article Sunlight Sunlight

    Sunlight is the electromagnetic radiation arriving at the Earth's surface due to direct illumination by the sun; this radiation includes ultraviolet, visible and... More »

  • Extremophile Featured Article Extremophile Extremophile

    An extremophile is an organism adapted to unusual limits of one or more abiotic factors in the environment. Some of the extreme conditions are temperature, pH, high salinity,... More »

  • Thermal pollution Featured Article Thermal pollution Thermal pollution

    Thermal pollution is the act of altering the temperature of a natural water body, which may be a river, lake or ocean environment. This condition chiefly arises from the... More »

  • Benthos Featured Article Benthos Benthos

    Benthos is one of three major ecological groups into which marine organisms are divided, the other two being the nekton and the plankton. The benthos are organisms and... More »

  • DNA Featured Article DNA DNA

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a long chain organic molecule that contains the coding for all metabolic and reproductive processes of all living organisms, save for certain... More »

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Macrophytes Last Updated on 2014-10-01 11:04:52 Macrophytes are the conspicuous plants that dominate wetlands, shallow lakes, and streams. Macroscopic flora include the aquatic angiosperms (flowering plants), pteridophytes (ferns), and bryophytes (mosses, hornworts, and liverworts). An aquatic plant can be defined as one that is normally found growing in association with standing water whose level is at or above the surface of the soil. Standing water includes ponds, shallow lakes, marshes, ditches, reservoirs, swamps, bogs, canals, and sewage lagoons. Aquatic plants, though less frequently, also occur in flowing water, in streams, rivers, and springs. Macrophytes constitute a diverse assemblage of taxonomic groups and are often separated into four categories based on their habit of growth: floating unattached, floating attached, submersed, and emergent. Floating unattached plants are those in which most of the plant is... More »
Mangrove ecology Last Updated on 2014-10-01 10:45:20 ​Mangrove ecology is the study of biotic interactions within mangrove swamp ecosystems. These habitats are significant not only for the biodiversity they represent, but also for the protection of coastal erosion, and for the provision of protected nursery areas for marine fauna.   Mangroves worldwide cover an approximate area of 240 000 square kilometers of sheltered coastlines in the tropics and subtropics. Mangroves stabilize coastal intertidal soils pereventing coastal erosion Four of the most common ecotypes include fringe, riverine, basin, and scrub forests. Mangroves are restricted to the intertidal zone. Mangroves in general have a great capacity to recover from major natural disturbances. Mangroves maintain water quality by trapping sediments and taking up excess... More »
Biomass Last Updated on 2014-09-30 22:09:21 Biomass is a term in ecology for the  mass of living organisms in a given ecosystem.  Biomass can refer to the living stock of species in a given habitat, but can also refer to a harvested subset or to a decaying subset (especially in the case of forest floor detritus). Biomass may refer to the total mass of all species within the study area, and is thus sometimes called community biomass; but biomass may also refer to a taxonomic subset. Biomass can be expressed as the average mass per unit area or unit volume, or simply as the total mass in the community. Plants characteristically comprise the greatest part of the biomass of terrestrial system. In the animal kingdom, iIronically, the smallest creatures in an ecosystem typically represent the largest quantity of its biomass. It is important to note that the relative biomass species mix may change considerably from season... More »
Habitat fragmentation Last Updated on 2014-09-30 10:21:30 Habitat fragmentation involves alteration of habitat resulting in spatial separation of habitat units from a previous state of greater continuity. Figure 1. Aerial photograph of dry forest scrub in southern Zambia, fragmented by agricultural land conversion. 2008 This phenomenon occurs naturally on a geologic time-scale or in unusual and catastrophic events: however, since the Holocene era, humans have produced dramatic and swift transformation of landscapes throughout the world, resulting in a level of habitat fragmentation that has induced worldwide reduction in biodiversity and interuption of  sustainable yields of natural resources. Humans produce habitat fragmentation chiefly from agricultural land conversion, urbanization, pollution, deforestation and introduction of alien species; ironically, both human caused wildfires as well as the... More »
Species Last Updated on 2014-09-15 11:53:19 A species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring of both genders, and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not characteristically occur: however, for asexual organisms, a distinct species may be considered a collection of organisms which have very similar DNA or physical characteristics. Certain species are further subdivided into subspecies. The early Greeks and Romans had a well established set of taxonomic names for species of animals and plants, based upon the macroscopically observable characteristics of organisms, with Aristotle being the chief architect of this codification; even earlier, the Egyptians and Cretans developed basic symbols and names for species important in farming and culture. It was not until the year 1686 when English naturalist John Ray introduced the concept that species were... More »