Global Environmental Governance: Annex

Rough Estimations of Monies Available to the Global Environmental Governance System

This table presents very rough and preliminary estimates of the monetary resources available to major components of the global environmental governance system. These are meant to be representative rather than exhaustive. The figures mentioned here are only the ones that are available publicly. Moreover, different figures are for different years; depending on the latest figures available. The reader is alerted to these constraints and it is suggested that the table should only be used as a rough comparative measure of the orders of magnitude of the monies available and of how they are available to various institutions. Much more research is needed on this subject and it is quite surprising (and frustrating) to note that even getting these broad numbers has been quite difficult.

Sources of funding $US millions per year (rough estimates) Commentary, elaboration and sources of data
Intergovernmental Organizations Source: 2003 World Resources 2002-2004: Decisions for the Earth: Balance, voice, and power. UNDP, UNEP,WB, WRI, page 152
UNEP 85.00 UNEP projects in 2000, but UNEP also managed about US$285m in GEF funds
UNDP 1,200.00 Environmental portfolio in 2000, efforts in capacity building and sustainable energy are not included
World Bank 5,000.00 Active portfolio in environmental projects in 2000
Subtotal 6,285.00 In year 2000
Major funds Source: Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development, The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 2002/2003 otherwise noted.
GEF 561.10 Total GEF corporate budget was US$22.2m for 2001–02. The core budget for the GEF Secretariat was US$8.02m. At the second GEF Replenishment in 1998, nations committed US$2.75 billion. Total = GEF budget (biannual/2) + annual replenishment value (replenishment/5)
The Basel Convention Technical Cooperation Trust Fund 2.17 Trust Fund in 2001 was US$2,175,250
The Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 149.87 Administrative budget of the Executive Committee and the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol US$32m for the period 1991–2002 (including staff contracts into 2003) annual estimate US$3.2m; Special funds: Multilateral Fund replenishment for 2000–2002 = US$440m, annual estimate US$146.67
The Global Mechanism of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification 1.85 Rough figure based on UNEP/FAO/RC/COP.2/10 p.16 estimate for the 2004–05 biennium which equals US$3.7m for administration and operations
Subtotal 714.99
Regional Development Banks Source: Annual Report to Congress on the Environment and the Multilateral Development Banks FY 2001
African Development Bank 62.00 Sum of loans for environmental projects ($51m) and grants for environment-related technical assistance ($11m)
Asian Development Bank 1,200.00 Loans to 12 environmental projects
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 211.00 Loans for nine approved environmental projects
Inter-American Development Bank 498.00 Sum of US$470m worth of loans for 10 environmental projects and US$28m for technical cooperation in environmental activities
North-American Development Bank 57.00 Grants for four environmental infrastructure projects
Subtotal 2,028.00 In year 2000
Secretariat budgets Source: Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development, 2002/2003 unless otherwise noted.
Climate Change Secretariat 18.53 Approved core budget = US$11.3m for 2001. Program budget = US$16.1m for 2002 (appr. COP-7); Contingency budget for conference servicing = US$5,661,800 for the years 2002–03; Special funds: Trust fund for participation in UNFCC (voluntary) income for 2001–2002 US$2.9m. and Trust fund for Supplementary Activities (voluntary) income for 2000–2001 US$5.9m.→Total (2001 estimate) = core budget (2001) + contingency budget (annual estimate) + special funds (annual estimate)
Ozone Secretariat 4.46 Administrative budget for the Convention = US$370,590 in 2001 Administrative budget for the Protocol US$4,099,385 in 2001
Secretariat of the Basel Convention 4.20 Trust Fund for the Implementation of the Basel Convention approved budget = US$4,201,854 in 2001
Rotterdam Convention on PIC 3.67 Estimate based on operational budget for 2005. Source: UNEP/POPS/COP.1/INF/2, 14 February 2005
Stockholm Convention on POPs Interim Secretariat 3.50 Rough estimate based on what is required for activities is US$3.5 million per year. An alternative approach would be to estimate based on POPs Club fundraising
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Secretariat 1.87 Administrative core budget US$2.470m in 2001
International Whaling Commission 2.30 Annual actual budget UKP 1,291,521 in 2001. (this figure used in US$) Administrative core budget was UKP 1,104,300 in 2001
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity 13.15 General BY Trust Fund core budget = US$8.594m for 2001 COP appr Special Voluntary BE Trust Fund (supports activities) = US$2.547m for 2001; Special Voluntary BZ Trust Fund (supports participation) US$2.011m; very rough estimate because data on what was realized is not provided here
CMS Secretariat (Migratory Species) 1.45 Core budget of US$1,454,595 for 2001
CITES 5.95 Administrative core budget SFr. 7,594,800 in 2001
Ramsar Convention Bureau 2.43 Core budget SFr. 3,106,000 in 2001
Secretariat of the Convention to Combat Desertification 12.29 Core budget for 2000–01 was US$14m Special Trust Fund for Participation US$1.354m in 2001 Trust Fund for Supplementary Activities contributions for 2000–01 were US$6.8m; Bonn Fund (host contributions) for 2000–01 were US$900,577
Subtotal 73.80
Some Major Environmental NGOs Source: Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development, The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 2002/2003 otherwise noted.
Greenpeace 191.37 Global income of Greenpeace worldwide EUR 157,730,000 in 2001
WWF International 224.96 Overall income SFr. 574.8m in 2000/01 = SFr 287.4 per annum
IUCN – The World Conservation Union 94.02 Budget SFr 120m in 2001
Earthwatch Institute 10.10 Budget in 2001
Friends of the Earth International 1.35 Budget EUR 1,110,000 in 2001
Subtotal 521.80 In 2001
Total Estimate 9,623.59 Approximate; million US$ per annum

Back to TOC: Global Environmental Governance: A Reform Agenda



Najam, A., Papa, M., Taiyab, N., & Development, I. (2007). Global Environmental Governance: Annex. Retrieved from


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