IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I: Annex 4

November 24, 2011, 10:51 am
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Originally published by our Content Partner: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (other articles)

Table of Contents


Regional Abbreviations used in Chapter

Acronyms & Regional Abbreviations



  • 20C3M 20th Century Climate in Coupled Models


  • AABW Antarctic Bottom Water

  • AAIW Antarctic Intermediate Water

  • AAO Antarctic Oscillation

  • AATSR Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer

  • ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current

  • ACCENT Atmospheric Composition Change: a European Network

  • ACE Accumulated Cyclone Energy or Aerosol Characterization Experiment

  • ACRIM Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor

  • ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite

  • ACW Antarctic circumpolar wave

  • ADEC Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate

  • ADNET Asian Dust Network

  • AeroCom Aerosol Model Intercomparison

  • AERONET Aerosol RObotic NETwork

  • AGAGE Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment

  • AGCM Atmospheric General Circulation Model

  • AGWP Absolute Global Warming Potential

  • AIACC Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors

  • AIC aviation-induced cloudiness

  • ALAS Autonomous LAgrangian Current Explorer

  • ALE Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment

  • AMIP Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

  • AMO Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation

  • AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

  • AO Arctic Oscillation

  • AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model

  • APEX Atmospheric Particulate Environment Change Studies

  • AR4 Fourth Assessment Report

  • ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  • ASOS Automated Surface Observation Systems

  • ASTEX Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment

  • ATCM Atmospheric Transport and Chemical Model

  • ATSR Along Track Scanning Radiometer

  • AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer


  • BATS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study

  • BC black carbon

  • BCC Beijing Climate Center

  • BCCR Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research

  • BIOME 6000 Global Palaeovegetation Mapping project

  • BMRC Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre


  • C4MIP Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project

  • CaCO3 calcium carbonate

  • CAMS Climate Anomaly Monitoring System (NOAA)

  • CAPE Convective Available Potential Energy

  • CCl4 carbon tetrachloride

  • CCM Chemistry-Climate Model

  • CCCma Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis

  • CCN cloud condensation nuclei

  • CCSR Centre for Climate System Research

  • CDIAC Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

  • CDW Circumpolar Deep Water

  • CERES Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System

  • CERFACS Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scienti?c

  • CF4 per?uoromethane

  • CFC chloro?uorocarbon

  • CFCl3 CFC-11

  • CH2I2 di-iodomethane (methylene iodide)

  • CH2O formaldehyde

  • CH3CCl3 methyl chloroform

  • CH3COOH acetic acid

  • CH4 methane

  • CLAMS Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites

  • CLARIS Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies

  • CLIMAP Climate: Long-range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction

  • CLIVAR Climate Variability and Predictability Programme

  • CMAP CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation

  • CMDL Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA)

  • CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project

  • CNRM Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

  • CO carbon monoxide

  • CO2 carbon dioxide

  • CO32– carbonate

  • COADS Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set

  • COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment

  • COBE-SST Centennial in-situ Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs

  • COWL Cold Ocean-Warm Land

  • CPC Climate Prediction Center (NOAA)

  • CREAS Regional Climate Change Scenarios for South America

  • CRIEPI Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

  • CRUTEM2v CRU/Hadley Centre gridded land-surface air temperature version 2v

  • CRUTEM3 CRU/Hadley Centre gridded land-surface air temperature version 3

  • CSIRO Commonwealth Scienti?c and Industrial Research Organization

  • CTM Chemical Transport Model


  • DEMETER Development of a European Multimodel Ensemble System for Seasonal to Interannual Prediction

  • DIC dissolved inorganic carbon

  • DJF December, January, February

  • DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt

  • DMS dimethyl sulphide

  • D-O Dansgaard-Oeschger

  • DOC dissolved organic carbon

  • DORIS Determination d’Orbite et Radiopositionnement Intégrés par Satellite

  • DSOW Denmark Strait Over?ow Water

  • DSP Dynamical Seasonal Prediction

  • DTR diurnal temperature range

  • DU Dobson unit


  • EARLINET European Aerosol Research Lidar Network

  • EBM Energy Balance Model

  • ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

  • ECS equilibrium climate sensitivity

  • EDGAR Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research

  • EMIC Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity

  • ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation

  • EOF Empirical Orthogonal Function

  • EOS Earth Observing System

  • EPICA European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica

  • ERA-15 ECMWF 15-year reanalysis

  • ERA-40 ECMWF 40-year reanalysis

  • ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

  • ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

  • ERS European Remote Sensing satellite

  • ESRL Earth System Research Library (NOAA)

  • ESTOC European Station for Time-series in the Ocean

  • EUROCS EUROpean Cloud Systems


  • FACE Free Air CO2 Enrichment

  • FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (UN)

  • FAR First Assessment Report

  • FRCGC Frontier Research Center for Global Change

  • FRSGC Frontier Research System for Global Change


  • GAGE Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment

  • GARP Global Atmospheric Research Program

  • GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

  • GAW Global Atmosphere Watch

  • GCM General Circulation Model

  • GCOS Global Climate Observing System

  • GCSS GEWEX Cloud System Study

  • GEIA Global Emissions Inventory Activity

  • GEOS Goddard Earth Observing System

  • GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

  • GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

  • GHCN Global Historical Climatology Network

  • GHG greenhouse gas

  • GIA glacial isostatic adjustment

  • GIN Sea Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea

  • GISP2 Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2

  • GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies

  • GLACE Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment

  • GLAMAP Glacial Ocean Mapping

  • GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

  • GLODAP Global Ocean Data Analysis Project

  • GLOSS Global Sea Level Observing System

  • GMD Global Monitoring Division (NOAA)

  • GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

  • GPCC Global Precipitation Climatology Centre

  • GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project

  • GPS Global Positioning System

  • GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

  • GRIP Greenland Ice Core Project

  • GSA Great Salinity Anomaly

  • Gt gigatonne (109 tonnes)

  • GWE Global Weather Experiment

  • GWP Global Warming Potential


  • H2 molecular hydrogen

  • HadAT Hadley Centre Atmospheric Temperature data set

  • HadAT2 Hadley Centre Atmospheric Temperature data set Version 2

  • HadCRUT2v Hadley Centre/CRU gridded surface temperature data set version 2v

  • HadCRUT3 Hadley Centre/CRU gridded surface temperature data set version 3

  • HadISST Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set

  • HadMAT Hadley Centre Marine Air Temperature data set

  • HadRT Hadley Centre Radiosonde Temperature data set

  • HadRT2 Hadley Centre Radiosonde Temperature data set version 2

  • HadSLP2 Hadley Centre MSLP data set version 2

  • HadSST2 Hadley Centre SST data set version 2

  • HALOE Halogen Occultation Experiment

  • HCFC hydrochloro?uorocarbon

  • HCO3 bicarbonate

  • HFC hydro?uorocarbon

  • HIRS High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

  • HLM High Latitude Mode

  • HNO3 nitric acid

  • HO2 hydroperoxyl radical

  • HONO nitrous acid

  • HOT Hawaii Ocean Time-Series

  • hPa hectopascal

  • HYDE HistorY Database of the Environment


  • IABP International Arctic Buoy Programme

  • ICESat Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite

  • ICOADS International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set

  • ICSTM Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

  • IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

  • IGBP-DIS IGBP Data and Information System

  • IGRA Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive

  • IMO International Meteorological Organization

  • INDOEX Indian Ocean Experiment

  • InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

  • IO iodine monoxide

  • IOCI Indian Ocean Climate Initiative

  • IOD Indian Ocean Dipole

  • IOZM Indian Ocean Zonal Mode

  • IPAB International Programme for Antarctic Buoys

  • IPO Inter-decadal Paci?c Oscillation

  • IPSL Institut Pierre Simon Laplace

  • IS92 IPCC Scenarios 1992

  • ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

  • ITCZ Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone


  • JAMSTEC Japan Marine Science and Technology Center

  • JJA June, July, August

  • JMA Japan Meteorological Agency


  • ka thousand years ago

  • KMA Korea Meteorological Administration

  • KNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute

  • kyr thousand year


  • LASG National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

  • LBA Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia

  • LBC lateral boundary condition

  • LBL line-by-line

  • LGM Last Glacial Maximum

  • LIG Last Interglacial

  • LKS Lanzante-Klein-Seidel

  • LLGHG long-lived greenhouse gas

  • LLJ Low-Level Jet

  • LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  • LMD Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique

  • LOA Laboratoire d’Optique Atmospherique

  • LOSU level of scienti?c understanding

  • LSCE Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement

  • LSM land surface model

  • LSW Labrador Sea Water

  • LW longwave

  • LWP liquid water path


  • µmol micromole

  • Ma million years ago

  • MAM March, April, May

  • MARGO Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean surface

  • mb millibar

  • MDI Michelson Doppler Imager

  • Meteosat European geostationary meteorological satellite

  • MFR Maximum Feasible Reduction

  • MHT meridional heat transport

  • MINOS Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study

  • MIP Model Intercomparison Project

  • MIRAGE Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments

  • MISO Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation

  • MISR Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer

  • MJO Madden-Julian Oscillation

  • MLS Microwave Limb Sounder

  • MMD Multi-Model Data set (at PCMDI)

  • MOC Meridional Overturning Circulation

  • MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

  • mol mole

  • MONEX Monsoon Experiment

  • MOPITT Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere

  • MOZAIC Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft

  • MPI Max Planck Institute

  • MPIC Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

  • MPLNET Micro-Pulse Lidar Network

  • MRI Meteorological Research Institute of JMA

  • MSLP mean sea level pressure

  • MSU Microwave Sounding Unit

  • Myr million years


  • N2 molecular nitrogen

  • N2O nitrous oxide

  • N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide

  • NADW North Atlantic Deep Water

  • NAH North Atlantic subtropical high

  • NAM Northern Annular Mode

  • NAMS North American Monsoon System

  • NAO North Atlantic Oscillation

  • NARCCAP North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program

  • NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research

  • NCDC National Climatic Data Center

  • NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction

  • NEAQS New England Air Quality Study

  • NEP net ecosystem production

  • NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service

  • NGRIP North Greenland Ice Core Project

  • NH Northern Hemisphere

  • NH3 ammonia

  • NH4+ ammonium ion

  • NIES National Institute for Environmental Studies

  • NIWA National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

  • NMAT Nighttime Marine Air Temperature

  • NMHC non-methane hydrocarbon

  • NMVOC non-methane volatile organic compound

  • NO nitric oxide

  • NO2 nitrogen dioxide

  • NO3 nitrate radical

  • NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  • NOx reactive nitrogen oxides (the sum of NO and NO2)

  • NPI North Paci?c Index

  • NPIW North Paci?c Intermediate Water

  • NPP net primary productivity

  • NRA NCEP/NCAR reanalysis

  • NVAP NASA Water Vapor Project


  • O(1D) oxygen radical in the 1D excited state

  • O2 molecular oxygen

  • O3 ozone

  • OASIS Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil

  • OCTS Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner

  • ODS ozone-depleting substances

  • OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

  • OGCM Ocean General Circulation Model

  • OH hydroxyl radical

  • OIO iodine dioxide

  • OLR outgoing longwave radiation

  • OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument

  • OPAC Optical Parameters of Aerosols and Clouds


  • PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

  • pCO2 partial pressure of CO2

  • PDF probability density function

  • PDI Power Dissipation Index

  • PDO Paci?c Decadal Oscillation

  • PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index

  • PET potential evapotranspiration

  • PETM Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  • PFC per?uorocarbon

  • Pg petagram (1015 grams)

  • PMIP Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project

  • PMOD Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos

  • PNA Paci?c-North American pattern

  • PNNL Paci?c Northwest National Laboratory

  • PNV potential natural vegetation

  • POA primary organic aerosol

  • POC particulate organic carbon

  • POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Re?ectance

  • POM particulate organic matter

  • ppb parts per billion

  • ppm parts per million

  • PR Precipitation Radar

  • PREC/L Precipitation Reconstruction over Land

  • PROVOST Prediction of Climate Variations on Seasonal to Interannual Time Scales

  • PRP Partial Radiative Perturbation

  • PSA Paci?c-South American pattern

  • PSC polar stratospheric cloud

  • PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level

  • PSU Pennsylvania State University

  • psu Practical Salinity Unit


  • QBO Quasi-Biennial Oscillation


  • RATPAC Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate

  • RCM Regional Climate Model

  • REA Reliability Ensemble Average

  • REML restricted maximum likelihood

  • RF radiative forcing

  • RFI Radiative Forcing Index

  • RH relative humidity

  • RMS root-mean square

  • RSL relative sea level

  • RSS Remote Sensing Systems

  • RTMIP Radiative-Transfer Model Intercomparison Project


  • SACZ South Atlantic Convergence Zone

  • SAFARI Southern African Regional Science Initiative

  • SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment or Centre for Sustainability and the Global Environment

  • SAM Southern Annular Mode or Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement

  • SAMS South American Monsoon System

  • SAMW Subantarctic Mode Water

  • SAR Second Assessment Report or Synthetic Aperture Radar

  • SARB Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget

  • SARR Space Absolute Radiometric Reference

  • SAT surface air temperature

  • SCA snow-covered area

  • SCIAMACHY SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY

  • SCM Simple Climate Model

  • SeaWiFs Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor

  • SF6 sulphur hexa?uoride

  • SH Southern Hemisphere

  • SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  • SIS Small Island States

  • SLE sea level equivalent

  • SLP sea level pressure

  • SMB surface mass balance

  • SMM Solar Maximum Mission

  • SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

  • SO Southern Oscillation

  • SO2 sulphur dioxide

  • SO4 sulphate

  • SOA secondary organic aerosol

  • SOHO Solar Heliospheric Observatory

  • SOI Southern Oscillation Index

  • SOM soil organic matter

  • SON September, October, November

  • SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

  • SPARC Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate

  • SPCZ South Paci?c Convergence Zone

  • SPM Summary for Policymakers

  • SRALT Satellite radar altimetry

  • SRES Special Report on Emission Scenarios

  • SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

  • SST sea surface temperature

  • STARDEX STAtistical and Regional dynamical Downscaling of EXtremes for European regions

  • STE stratosphere-troposphere exchange

  • STMW Subtropical Mode Water

  • SUNY State University of New York

  • Sv Sverdrup (106 m3 s–1)

  • SW shortwave

  • SWE snow water equivalent

  • SWH signi?cant wave height


  • τaeraerosol optical depth

  • T/P TOPEX/Poseidon

  • T12 HIRS channel 12

  • T2 MSU channel 2

  • T2LT MSU lower-troposphere channel

  • T3 MSU channel 3

  • T4 MSU channel 4

  • TAR Third Assessment Report

  • TARFOX Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment

  • TBO Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation

  • TCR transient climate response

  • TEAP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel

  • TGBM Tide Gauge Bench Mark

  • TGICA Task Group on Data and Scenario Support for Impact and Climate Analysis (IPCC)

  • THC Thermohaline Circulation

  • THIR Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer

  • TIM Total Solar Irradiance Monitor

  • TIROS Television InfraRed Observation Satellite

  • TMI TRMM microwave imager

  • TOA top of the atmosphere

  • TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere

  • TOM top of the model

  • TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

  • TOPEX TOPography EXperiment

  • TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

  • TransCom3 Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project

  • TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  • TSI total solar irradiance


  • UAH University of Alabama in Huntsville

  • UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

  • UCDW Upper Circumpolar Deep Water

  • UCI University of California, Irvine

  • UEA University of East Anglia

  • UHI Urban Heat Island

  • UIO University of Oslo

  • UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office

  • ULAQ University of L’Aquila

  • UMD University of Maryland

  • UMI University of Michigan

  • UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

  • UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • USHCN US Historical Climatology Network

  • UTC Coordinated Universal Time

  • UTRH upper-tropospheric relative humidity

  • UV ultraviolet

  • UVic University of Victoria


  • VIRGO Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations

  • VIRS Visible Infrared Scanner

  • VOC volatile organic compound

  • VOS Voluntary Observing Ships

  • VRGCM Variable-Resolution General Circulation Model


  • W watt

  • WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet

  • WCRP World Climate Research Programme

  • WDCGG World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases

  • WGI IPCC Working Group I

  • WGII IPCC Working Group II

  • WGIII IPCC Working Group III

  • WGMS World Glacier Monitoring Service

  • WMDW Western Mediterranean Deep Water

  • WMO World Meteorological Organization

  • WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment

  • WRE Wigley, Richels and Edmonds (1996)

  • WWR World Weather Records


  • ZIA 0°C isotherm altitude

Regional Abbreviations used in Chapter 11

  • ALA Alaska

  • AMZ Amazonia

  • ANT Antarctic

  • ARC Arctic

  • CAM Central America

  • CAR Caribbean

  • CAS Central Asia

  • CGI East Canada, Greenland and Iceland

  • CNA Central North America

  • EAF East Africa

  • EAS East Asia

  • ENA Eastern North America

  • IND Indian Ocean

  • MED Mediterranean Basin

  • NAS Northern Asia

  • NAU North Australia

  • NEU Northern Europe

  • NPA North Paci?c Ocean

  • SAF South Africa

  • SAH Sahara

  • SAS South Asia

  • SAU South Australia

  • SEA Southeast Asia

  • SEM Southern Europe and Mediterranean

  • SPA South Paci?c Ocean

  • SSA Southern South America

  • TIB Tibetan Plateau

  • TNE Tropical Northeast Atlantic

  • WAF West Africa

  • WNA Western North America


This is a chapter from IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (full report).
Previous: Reviewers  |  Table of Contents  |  Next: Uncertainty Guidance Note for the Fourth Assessment Report




Change, I. (2011). IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I: Annex 4. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/153653


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