Northwestern Congolian lowland forests
The Northwest Congolian Lowland Forest ecoregion contains vast tracts of lowland forest, supporting core populations of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and large numbers of forest elephant. Species richness and endemism are both high. Logging concessions and associated bushmeat hunting and agricultural expansion are the main threats to the habitats and species. There are some established protected areas, and the gazettement of new protected areas offers good potential for biodiversity conservation in the region.
Location and General Description
The Northwestern Congolian Lowland Forests ecoregion stretches across four countries - Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic (CAR). It is bordered to the north and south by forest-savanna mosaics and to the east by swamp forest, while the western limit grades gradually into the lowland rain forests of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forest ecoregion. Most of the ecoregion lies at altitudes between 300 and 800 meters (m), with the highest elevations towards the north and in the Chaillu Massif to the south. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 1,400 to 2,000 millimeters (mm) in the central portion of the ecoregion, with most rain falling during two distinct wet seasons. Temperatures are tropical, with an annual mean maximum of 27° to 30°C and an annual mean minimum of 18° to 21°C. Humidity is high throughout the year.
The majority of the area overlies Precambrian bedrock, with pre-Cretaceous sediments in the northern sector. In most places a thick layer of heavily leached red oxisols overlies the bedrock. Alluvial deposits sometimes overlay and mix with these oxisols on the surface layer.
The human population of the ecoregion is low, but accurate population density data are lacking. Population density is generally under 5 persons per square kilometer (km2), although densities are higher around towns and major cities, including the capitals of Yaoundé and Bangui on the fringes of the ecoregion. Large areas of the interior, especially in Gabon and Congo, are almost devoid of human inhabitants, with population densities as low as one person per km2. Gabon and the Republic of Congo rank first and second, respectively, as the least populated, forested countries of Africa. In the remote inland areas most people live along roads and rivers, leaving the interior of the forest free of major settlements. In the forested interior most people are from the BaAka, BaKa, BaKola, and some smaller groups of traditional forest peoples, usually referred to as pygmies; there are also Bantu cultivators who associate closely with them.
This ecoregion is a part of the Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest within the Guineo-Congolian regional center of endemism. Two types of forest are recognized: a mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian type and a single-dominant moist evergreen and semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian type. Knowledge of the flora of this region has been greatly improved in the last decade by the activities of organizations such as ECOFAC, WCS, WWF, and others. Some of the characteristic species of the ecoregion include emergent trees up to 60 m tall (Entandrophragma congoense, Pentaclethera eetveldeana, Pericopsis elata, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei), shrub species of Drypetes (D. calvescens, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri), and abundant lianas and rattans. The abundance of Raffia palms is noteworthy along the river valleys in the northern portion of the ecoregion, with pure stands of Raffia cf. monbuttorum and other species being common.
Species richness is high throughout the ecoregion, although large areas of the forest and most taxonomic groups have been under surveyed. Data therefore tend to reflect what is known of a few well-studied areas and taxa. In general, rates of strict endemism are not particularly high, especially in plants. However, the recent discovery of new species of birds and small mammals indicates that endemism might be higher than has been previously assumed, especially in the Sangha Basin.
There are an estimated 7,151 vascular plants found in Gabon, over 3,600 in the Central African Republic, 8,260 in Cameroon and 6,000 in Congo. A study in Gabon has shown that these forests are richer in plant species than those of West Africa. Reitsma found over 200 different species of plants in a 0.02 ha plot in Gabon, and Letouzey found 227 in a 0.01 ha plot in Cameroon. These are among the highest species/area counts for any vegetation the world.
Mammalian richness is amongst the highest of any forest ecoregion in Africa. Gabon and Congo are estimated to have 190 and 198 mammal species respectively. Dzanga-Sangha National Park in CAR alone contains 105 species of non-volant mammals. The species richness of primates is the highest in Africa. Cameroon has 29 species of primate recorded from its forests and Gabon has 19, including mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx, VU). The great apes are of particular interest: this ecoregion harbors more gorillas, and possibly more chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, EN), than any other ecoregion in Africa. Other forest dwelling mammals include forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and larger forest antelopes such as bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) and sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei). The ecoregion is also well known for its large population of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis, EN). In some parts of this ecoregion, such as Mouabale Ndoki National Park in Congo and Langoue in Gabon, these elephant remain relatively undisturbed.
At least 13 species of mammal are near-endemic and three are strictly endemic to this ecoregion. Strict endemic mammals are Dollman's tree mouse (Prionomys batesi), Remy's shrew (Suncus remyi, CR), and the recently discovered shrew, Sylvisorex konganensis. Near-endemic species include sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus, VU), black colobus (Colobus satanas, VU), elegant needle-clawed galago (Euoticus elegantulus), Glen's wattled bat (Chalinolobus gleni), forest horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus silvestris) and five species of shrew (Crocidura attila, VU, C. crenata, C. ludia, VU, C. manengubae, C. mutesae).
The bird fauna is also diverse. Gabon, which is mostly closed forest, contains 695 species, although the savanna patches in the center of the country and along the coast add species not found within this ecoregion. Odzala National Park alone contains 442 species (Dowsett-Lemaire 1997). The Trinational area of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo, Lobeke National Park in Cameroon, and Dzanga-Sangha National Park in the Central African Republic contain at least 428 species, including one recently discovered endemic forest robin, Stiphornis sanghensis. The ecoregion lies within the eastern portion of the Cameroon and Gabon Lowlands endemic bird area (EBA), and includes forest batis (Batis minima), Rachel's malimbe (Malimbus racheliae), and forest swallow (Hirundo fuliginosa). Important Bird Areas include Ipassa Strict Nature Reserve and Minkébé Forest Reserve in Gabon and Nouabale-Ndoki National Park complex and Odzala National Park complex in Republic of Congo, Dja Faunal Reserve, Boumba-Bek, Nki, and Lobéké National Park.
The species richness of amphibians and reptiles is also high. Among the amphibians are two endemic clawed frog species, Xeropus boumbaensis and X. pygmaeus. Endemic reptiles include the gray chameleon (Chameleo chapini), crested chameleon (C. cristatus), Grant's African ground snake (Gonionotophis grantii), Fuhn's five-toed skink (Leptosiaphos fuhni), Peter's lidless skink (Fanaspis breviceps), Cameroon stumptail chameleon (Rhampholeon spectrum), and Zenker's worm snake (Typhlops zenkeri).
A map of the priority sites for biodiversity conservation has been proposed in IUCN (1989), with more details in Gartlan (1989), Hecketsweiler (1990), Hecketsweiler et al. (1991), Hecketsweiler and Mokoko Ikonga (1991), Wilks (1990) Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1991), WWF (2000), and Fishpool and Evans (2001).
This ecoregion contains large areas of forest and forms a part of one of the world's last remaining tropical forest wildernesses. Around one third of the forest is classified as "frontier forests" that are largely in their natural state.
Many of the most pristine areas of forest are located within protected areas, including Lobéké, Nouabale-Ndoki, Odzala, Dzanga, Ndoki, and Mbam Djerem. These comprise approximately 22,690 km2 or roughly 5.2 percent of the ecoregion. When other reserves such as the Dzangha-Sangha Special Reserve, Minkébé, Dja, Boumba-Bek, Nki, and Ngotto are also included, the total area under protection is 44,166 km2, or roughly ten percent of the ecoregion.
Conservation initiatives over the last decade have resulted in a number of newly gazetted areas. For example, the declaration of the Minkébé Forest Reserve (5,650 km2) marked a significant enhancement of the conservation area network in Gabon. In Congo, Odzala–Koukoua National Park (over 13,000 km2) has recently been extended. The Dzanga-Sangha forest in CAR is protected within the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent Dzanga-Sangha Faunal Reserve, totaling 4,347 km2, which is about eight percent of CAR's total closed forest estate. While the forest around Ngotto in CAR currently has no official protected area status, the Forêt de Ngotto (730 km2) is in the final stages of gazettement. In Cameroon, Dja, Boumba-Bek, Nki and Lac Lobéké protected areas cover an extensive area of lowland forest in the southern part of the country. One of the largest areas under protection is the Sangha Trinational protected area (10,650 km2), which combines the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park (over 4,000 km2) in northern Republic of Congo, Dzanga-Sangha complex in the Central African Republic (CAR), and the Lobéké National Park in Cameroon.
Types and Severity of Threats
Most of the ecoregion has been allocated to forestry concessions. Even within protected areas, logging is a concern. Although logging in the region is selective and habitat conversion is limited, the major issue is the depletion of wildlife in logging concessions through hunting for bushmeat and poaching for ivory. There are also technical problems with the sustainability of logging operations and also of the political will both of regional governments and the logging industry to operate sustainably.
Logging roads and other infrastructure developments are contributing to the uneven loss of habitat throughout the ecoregion, with more accessible regions most affected. Although the impact of this fragmentation on biodiversity is still poorly understood, the population densities of sensitive species (e.g. chimpanzees) are known to decline.
Road and infrastructure developments increase interactions between humans and animals, to the usual detriment of the latter. One direct impact is the bushmeat trade, which primarily affects duikers (Cephalophus spp.) that can comprise up to 80 percent of the harvest in certain sites, and monkeys (Cercopithecus, Cercobcebus, Mandrillus, Colobus spp.). Larger antelopes, Tragelaphus spp., apes (Gorilla and Pan), buffalo and pigs (Potamochoerus, Hylochoerus) are also affected. Even top predators such as crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus), leopard (Panthera pardus) and golden cat (Felis aurata) are affected as their prey animals are hunted out.
The logging industries' role in this trade has been heavily debated. However, there is little doubt that they provide a market (the logging camps), a transport system (the logging trucks), and a means of access (the logging roads) that are invaluable to the bushmeat industry.
In addition to the bushmeat industry some species are also hunted for trophies, fetishes and the pet trade. Elephants are still extensively poached for their meat and ivory. The trade in African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus) is well developed in some parts, especially in Cameroon where it threatens the survival of this species. Certain other species, such as crocodiles and lizards, face similar threats. Although professional safari hunting can be beneficial to conservation, this has rarely been the case in this ecoregion. Future threats to the forest include immigration of agricultural peoples into the logged forest areas.
Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
This ecoregion forms part of the greater Guineo-Congolian regional center of endemism. The northwestern limit of the ecoregion is the Sanaga River, a faunal boundary for such species as the golden angwantibo (Arctocebus aureus), white-bellied duiker (Cephalophus leucogaster), mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), and elegant needle-clawed galago (Euoticus elegantus). The Oubangui River also represents a faunal boundary to the northeast. Other borders follow 'Guineo-Congolian wet and dry rainforest' delineated by White. Small areas of swamp forest were subsumed within the ecoregion.
Additional Information on this Ecoregion
- For a shorter summary of this entry, see the WWF WildWorld profile of this ecoregion.
- To see the species that live in this ecoregion, including images and threat levels, see the WWF Wildfinder description of this ecoregion.
- World Wildlife Fund Homepage
- Alers, M.P.T., A. Blom, C. Sikubwabo Kiyengo, T. Masunda, and R.F.W. Barnes. 1992. A preliminary assessment of the status of the forest elephant in Zaire. African Journal of Ecology 30: 279-291.
- Auzel, P. and D. Wilkie. 2000. Wildlife use in northern Congo: hunting in a commercial logging concession. Pp 413-426 in J. Robinson and E. Bennett (eds). Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York.
- Barnes, R.F.W., M. Agnagna, M.P.T. Alers, A. Blom, G. Doungoube, J.M. Fay, T. Masunda, J.C. Ndo Nkoumou, C. Sikubwabo Kiyengo, and M. Tchamba. 1993. Elephants and ivory poaching in the forests of equatorial Africa: results of a field reconnaissance. Oryx 27: 27-34.
- Barnes, R.F.W., A. Blom, and M.P.T. Alers. 1995a. A review of the status of forest elephants Loxodonta africana in central Africa. Biological Conservation 71: 125-132.
- Barnes, R.F.W., A. Blom, M.P.T. Alers, and K.L. Barnes. 1995b. An estimate of the numbers of Forest elephants in Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 11: 27-37.
- Bennett, E.L. and J.G. Robinson. 2000a. Hunting of wildlife in tropical forests. The World Bank. Washington. ISBN: 0231109776
- Bennett, E.L. and J.G. Robinson. 2000b. Hunting for sustainability: the start of a synthesis. Pp. 499-519 in J. Robinson and E.L. Bennett (eds.) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York. ISBN: 0231109776
- Beresford, P. and Cracraft, J. 1999. Speciation in African forest robins (Stiphronis): species limits, phylogentic relationships, and molecular biogeography. American Museum of Natural History, Novitiates, No. 3270, New York.
- Blake, S. 2002a. Forest buffalo in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park region, northern Congo: preliminary data on distribution and ecology in primary forest. Oryx 36:81-86.
- Blake, S. 2002b. Elephants as individuals: correlates in time and space with population characteristics. The ecology of forest elephant distribution, ranging, and habitat use in the Ndoki Forest in Central Africa. PhD Thesis. University of Edinburgh.
- Blake, S., G. Kossa Kossa, Y.B. Djoni, and B. Mpati. 1997. Etude pilote de vegetation dans les UFAs Mokabi et Loundougou, zones tampons du Parc National Nouabalé-Ndoki, Nord Congo. WCS-Congo.
- Blom, A. 1993. List of the large mammals of the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Special Reserve and the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park. Dzanga-Sangha Project-WWF.
- Blom, A., M.P.T. Alers, A.T.C. Feistner, R.F.W. Barnes, and K.L. Jensen. 1992. Notes on the current status and distribution of primates in Gabon. Oryx 26: 223-234.
- Blom, A., A. Almasi, I.M.A. Heitkonig, J.-B. Kpanou, and H.T. Prins. 2001. A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. African Journal of Ecology 39: 98-105.
- Blom, A., and J. Yamindou. 2001. Status of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic. In Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic, doctoral thesis, by A. Blom, 2001. Department of Environmental Sciences, Tropical Nature Conservation and Vertebrate Ecology Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
- Bryant, D., D. Nielson, L. Tangley. 1997. The last frontier forests: ecosystems and economies on the edge. World Resources Institute, Forest Frontiers Initiative, in cooperation with the World Conservation Monitoring Center and the World Wide Fund for Nature.
- CARPE. 2001. Congo Basin information series: taking action to manage and conserve forest resources in the Congo Basin. Results and lessons learned from the first phase (1996-2000). USAID/WWF/TNC/WRI: Central African Regional Program for the Environment. Washington DC.
- Carroll, R.W. 1988. Elephants of the Dzanga-Sangha dense forest of south-western Central African Republic. Pachyderm 10: 12-15.
- Carroll, R.W. 1997. Feeding ecology of the western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Central African Republic, Yale University, New Haven. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 316 pp.
- Christy, P. 2001. Gabon. Pp. 349-356 in L.D.C. Fishpool and M.I. Evans (eds). Important bird areas of Africa and associated islands: priority sites for conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 11. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury and Cambridge, UK.
- Christy, P. 1999. Bird list for the Dzanga-Sangha Complex. WWF-Central African Republic.
- Colyn, M. 1999. Un nouveau status giogéographique pour l'Africa centrale. Canopée, No. 14, pp 3 -5 Libreville, Gabon.
- Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1996. Composition et evolution de la végétation forestière au Parc National d'Odzala Congo. Bull. Jard. Nat. Belg. 65: 253-292.
- Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 2001. Congo. Pp. 191-218 in L.D.C. Fishpool and M.I. Evans (eds). Important bird areas of Africa and associated islands: priority sites for conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 11. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury and Cambridge, UK.
- Dowsett-Lemaire, F.1997. The avifauna of Odzala National Park, northern Congo. Pp. 15-48 in R.J. Dowsett, R.J. and F. Dowsett-Lemaire (eds.). Flore et faune du Parc National d'Odzala, Congo. Tauraco Research Report No. 6. Tauraco Press, Liege, Belgium.
- Dowsett, R.J., and F. Dowsett-Lemaire (eds.) 1991. Flore et faune du Bassin du Kouilou (Congo) et leur exploitation. Tauraco Research Report No.4, Tauraco Press in association with CONOCO, Jupille-Liège, Belgium.
- Dowsett, R.J. and Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (eds.). 1997. Flore et faune du Parc National d'Odzala, Congo. Tauraco Research Report No. 6. Tauraco Press, Liege, Belgium.
- Dowsett, R.J. and A.D. Forbes-Watson. 1993. Checklist of the birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Jupille-Liège, Belgium.
- Elkan, P.W. 1996. A pilot study investigation of the bongo antelope populations and forest clearings of the Mombongo region, northern Congo. Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Eves, H. and R. Ruggiero. 2000. Socioeconomics and the sustainability of hunting in the forests of northern Congo (Brazzaville). Pp 427-454 in J. Robinson and E. Bennett (eds.) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York.
- Fay, J.M. 1989. A population survey of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the forests of the Central African Republic: Report to EEC/WWF African elephant programme, July 1989: EEC/WWF African elephant programme.
- Fay, J.M. and A. Vedder. 1997. Fate of the forest: accelerated logging in the Central African Basin: Congo as a case study. Discussion paper by the Wildlife Conservation Society. WCS.
- Fay, J.M., and M. Agnagna. 1991. Forest elephant populations in the Central African Republic and Congo. Pachyderm 14: 3-19.
- Fay, J.M., and M. Agnagna. 1992. Census of gorillas in Northern Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology 27: 275-284.
- Fimbel, C., B. Curran, and L. Usongo. 2000. Enhancing the sustainability of duiker hunting through community participation and controlled access in the Lobéké region of southeastern Cameroon. Pp 356-374 in J. Robinson and E. Bennett (eds). Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York. ISBN: 0231109776
- Fotso, R., F. Dowsett-Lemaire, R.J. Dowsett, Cameroon Ornithological Club, P. Scholte, M. Languy, and C. Bowden. 2001. Congo. Pp. 133-159 in L.D.C. Fishpool and M.I. Evans (eds). Important bird areas of Africa and associated islands: priority sites for conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 11. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury and Cambridge, UK.
- Gartlan, S. 1989. La conservation des ecosystémes forestiers du Cameroun. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. ISBN: 2880329906
- Gartlan, S. 1992. Cameroon. In: Sayer, J.A., C.S. Harcourt, and N.M. Collins. (Eds.). The conservation of tropical forests: Africa. Hants, IUCN, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. ISBN: 0131753320
- Harris, D. In prep. Check-list of the vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Poject Aea, Central African Republic. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens.
- Harris, D. 1996. Interim check-list to the vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Project Aea, Central African Republic. Unpublished Report. University of Oxford.
- Harris, D. 1999. Lobéké: Botanical Inventory. Unpublished report for WWF Cameroon, 130 pp.
- Harrison, M.J.S. 1988. A new species of guenon (genus Cercopithecus) from Gabon. Journal of Zoology, London 215: 561-575.
- Hecketsweiler, P. 1990. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers du Congo. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Hecketsweiler, P., and J. Mokoko Ikonga. 1991. La Reserve de Conkouati: Congo, le Secteur Sud-Est. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Hecketsweiler, P., C. Doumenge, and J. Mokoko Ikonga. 1991. Le Parc National d'Odzala, Congo. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN: 2831700337
- Hilton-Taylor, C. (ed). 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN: 2831705657
- IUCN 1989. La Conservation des ecosystems forestiers d'Afrique centrale. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
- Juo, A.S.R, and L.P. Wilding. 1994. Soils of the lowland forests of West and Central Africa. Pp. 15-30 In. Alexander, I.J., Swaine, M.D. & Watling, R. (eds.). Essays on the ecology of the Guinea-Congo rain forest. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Series B 104.
- Lejoly, J. 1996. Synthese regionale sur la biodiversité vegetale des ligneux dans les 6 sites du projet ECOFAC en Afrique Centrale. Projet ECOFAC, Composante Congo. AGRECO-CTFT.
- Letouzey, R. 1968a. Cameroon. Conservation of vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara. Acta Phytogeographica Sueica 54: 115-121.
- Letouzey, R. 1968b. Etude phytogéographique du Cameroun. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
- Letouzey, R. 1985. Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1:500,000. Institut de la carte internationale de vegetation. Toulouse, France.
- Luling, V., and J.C. Kenrick. 1998. Forest Foragers of tropical Africa. Survival International, UK.
- Minnemyer, S. 2002. An analysis of access into Central Africa's rainforests. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.
- Mittermeier, R., N. Myers, J.B. Thomsen, and G.A.B. Da Fonseca. 1998. Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 12:516-532.
- Noss, A. 2000. Cable snares and nets in the Central African Republic. Pp 282-304 in J. Robinson and E. Bennett (eds). Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York.
- Putz, F.E., D.P. Dykstra, and R. Heinrich. 2000a. Why poor logging practices persist in the tropics. Conservation Biology 14: 951-956.
- Putz, F.E., K.H. Redford, J.G. Robinson, R. Fimbel, and G.M. Blate. 2000b. Biodiversity conservation in the context of tropical forest management. Environment Department Papers. Biodiversity Series-Impact Studies. Paper No. 75. The World Bank, Washington DC.
- Ray, J.C., and R. Hutterer. 1996. Structure of a shrew community in the Central African Republic based on the analysis of carnivore scats, with the description of a new sylvisorex (Mammmalia; Soricidae). Ecotropica 1: 85-97.
- Reitsma, J.M. 1988. Forest vegetation of Gabon. Tropenbos Foundation, Ede, The Netherlands. ISBN: 9051130074
- Sayer, J.A., C.S. Harcourt, and N.M. Collins. 1992. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Africa. IUCN and Simon & Schuster, Cambridge. ISBN: 0131753320
- Stattersfield, A.J., M.J. Crosby, A.J. Long, and D.C. Wege. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7., BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
- Stuart, S.N. and R.J. Adams (eds). 1990. Biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa and its islands: conservation management and sustainable use. Occasional papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Vol. 6. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Thorbjarnarson, J. 1992. Crocodiles: an action plan for their conservation. IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland. Switzerland. ISBN: 2831700604
- Thorbjarnarson, J. 1999. Crocodile tears and skins: international trade, economic constraints, and limits to the sustainable use of crocodilians. Conservation Biology 13: 465-470.
- Turkalo, A. and C. Klaus-Hugi. 1999. Group size and group composition of the bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) at a natural lick in the Dzanga National Park, Central African Republic. Mammalia 63: 437-448.
- Tutin, C.E.G., and M. Fernandez. 1984. Nation wide Census of Gorilla (Gorilla g.gorilla) and Chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) Populations in Gabon. American Journal of Primatology 6: 313-336.
- WCMC. 1992. Global biodiversity: status of the earth's living resources. Chapman and Hall, London. ISBN: 0412472406
- White, F. 1983. The vegetation of Africa, a descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa (3 Plates, Northwestern Africa, Northeastern Africa, and Southern Africa, 1:5,000,000). UNESCO, Paris. ISBN: 9231019554
- White, L.J.T. 1995. Etude de la Végétation. Réserve de a Lope. Gabon. ECOFAC, AGRECO CTFT.
- White, L.J.T. and C.E.G. Tutin. 2000. Why chimpanzees and gorillas respond differently to logging: a cautionary tale from Gabon. Pp 449-462 in W. Weber, L.J.T. White, A. Vedder, and L. Naughton (eds). African rain forest ecology and conservation. Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN: 0300084331
- White, L.J.T., G. McPherson, C.E.G. Tutin, E.A. Williamson, K.A. Abernethy, J.M. Reitsma, J.J. Wieringa, A. Blom, M.J.S. Harrison, and M. Leal. 2000. Plant species of the Lopé reserve, Gabon, with emphasis on the northern half. Special publication of the Missouri Botanical Gardens.
- Wilkie, D.S. and N. Laporte. 2001. Forest area and deforestation in Central Africa: current knowledge and future directions in African rain forest ecology and conservation. Pp. 119-139 in W. Weber, L.J.T. White, A. Vedder, and L. Naughton (eds). African rain forest ecology and conservation. Yale University Press, New Haven.
- Wilkie, D.S. and J.F. Carpenter. 1999. The potential role of safari hunting as a source of revenue for protected areas in the Congo Basin. Oryx 33: 339-345
- Wilkie, D.S., E. Shaw, F. Rotberg, G. Morelli, and P. Auzel. 2000. Roads, development, and conservation in the Congo Basin. Conservation Biology 14: 1614-1622.
- Wilkie D.S., J. Sidle, G. Boundzanga, P. Auzel, and S. Blake. 1998. Defaunation not deforestation: commercial logging and market hunting in northern Congo. In A. Grajal, J. Robinson, and A. Vedder (eds). The impact of commercial logging on wildlife in tropical forests. Yale University Press, New Haven.
- Wilks, C. 1990. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN: 2880329884
- WWF. 2003. Biological Priorities for Conservation in the Guinean-Congolian Forest and Freshwater Region. Proceedings of Workshop held on March 30 - April 2, 2000 in Libreville, Gabon. Kamdem Toham, A., D. Olson, R. Abell, J. D'Amico, N. Burgess, M. Thieme, A. Blom, R. W. Carroll, S. Gartlan, O. Langrand, R. Mikala Mussavu, D. O'Hara, H. Strand, and L. Trowbridge (Editors). Available from http:www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions
- WWF and IUCN. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. 3 volumes. IUCN publications Unit, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 283170197X
Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the World Wildlife Fund. Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the World Wildlife Fund should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.