Northwestern Congolian lowland forests

Content Cover Image

African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, CAR Photograph by WWF

The Northwest Congolian Lowland Forest ecoregion contains vast tracts of lowland forest, supporting core populations of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and large numbers of forest elephant. Species richness and endemism are both high. Logging concessions and associated bushmeat hunting and agricultural expansion are the main threats to the habitats and species. There are some established protected areas, and the gazettement of new protected areas offers good potential for biodiversity conservation in the region.

Location and General Description


The Northwestern Congolian Lowland Forests ecoregion stretches across four countries - Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic (CAR). It is bordered to the north and south by forest-savanna mosaics and to the east by swamp forest, while the western limit grades gradually into the lowland rain forests of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forest ecoregion. Most of the ecoregion lies at altitudes between 300 and 800 meters (m), with the highest elevations towards the north and in the Chaillu Massif to the south. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 1,400 to 2,000 millimeters (mm) in the central portion of the ecoregion, with most rain falling during two distinct wet seasons. Temperatures are tropical, with an annual mean maximum of 27° to 30°C and an annual mean minimum of 18° to 21°C. Humidity is high throughout the year.

The majority of the area overlies Precambrian bedrock, with pre-Cretaceous sediments in the northern sector. In most places a thick layer of heavily leached red oxisols overlies the bedrock. Alluvial deposits sometimes overlay and mix with these oxisols on the surface layer.

The human population of the ecoregion is low, but accurate population density data are lacking. Population density is generally under 5 persons per square kilometer (km2), although densities are higher around towns and major cities, including the capitals of Yaoundé and Bangui on the fringes of the ecoregion. Large areas of the interior, especially in Gabon and Congo, are almost devoid of human inhabitants, with population densities as low as one person per km2. Gabon and the Republic of Congo rank first and second, respectively, as the least populated, forested countries of Africa. In the remote inland areas most people live along roads and rivers, leaving the interior of the forest free of major settlements. In the forested interior most people are from the BaAka, BaKa, BaKola, and some smaller groups of traditional forest peoples, usually referred to as pygmies; there are also Bantu cultivators who associate closely with them.

This ecoregion is a part of the Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest within the Guineo-Congolian regional center of endemism. Two types of forest are recognized: a mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian type and a single-dominant moist evergreen and semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian type. Knowledge of the flora of this region has been greatly improved in the last decade by the activities of organizations such as ECOFAC, WCS, WWF, and others. Some of the characteristic species of the ecoregion include emergent trees up to 60 m tall (Entandrophragma congoense, Pentaclethera eetveldeana, Pericopsis elata, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei), shrub species of Drypetes (D. calvescens, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri), and abundant lianas and rattans. The abundance of Raffia palms is noteworthy along the river valleys in the northern portion of the ecoregion, with pure stands of Raffia cf. monbuttorum and other species being common.

Biodiversity Features

Species richness is high throughout the ecoregion, although large areas of the forest and most taxonomic groups have been under surveyed. Data therefore tend to reflect what is known of a few well-studied areas and taxa. In general, rates of strict endemism are not particularly high, especially in plants. However, the recent discovery of new species of birds and small mammals indicates that endemism might be higher than has been previously assumed, especially in the Sangha Basin.

caption Giant forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, C.A.R. (Photograph by WWF/ A.A. Green)

There are an estimated 7,151 vascular plants found in Gabon, over 3,600 in the Central African Republic, 8,260 in Cameroon and 6,000 in Congo. A study in Gabon has shown that these forests are richer in plant species than those of West Africa. Reitsma found over 200 different species of plants in a 0.02 ha plot in Gabon, and Letouzey found 227 in a 0.01 ha plot in Cameroon. These are among the highest species/area counts for any vegetation the world.

Mammalian richness is amongst the highest of any forest ecoregion in Africa. Gabon and Congo are estimated to have 190 and 198 mammal species respectively. Dzanga-Sangha National Park in CAR alone contains 105 species of non-volant mammals. The species richness of primates is the highest in Africa. Cameroon has 29 species of primate recorded from its forests and Gabon has 19, including mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx, VU). The great apes are of particular interest: this ecoregion harbors more gorillas, and possibly more chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, EN), than any other ecoregion in Africa. Other forest dwelling mammals include forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and larger forest antelopes such as bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) and sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei). The ecoregion is also well known for its large population of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis, EN). In some parts of this ecoregion, such as Mouabale Ndoki National Park in Congo and Langoue in Gabon, these elephant remain relatively undisturbed.

At least 13 species of mammal are near-endemic and three are strictly endemic to this ecoregion. Strict endemic mammals are Dollman's tree mouse (Prionomys batesi), Remy's shrew (Suncus remyi, CR), and the recently discovered shrew, Sylvisorex konganensis. Near-endemic species include sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus, VU), black colobus (Colobus satanas, VU), elegant needle-clawed galago (Euoticus elegantulus), Glen's wattled bat (Chalinolobus gleni), forest horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus silvestris) and five species of shrew (Crocidura attila, VU, C. crenata, C. ludia, VU, C. manengubae, C. mutesae).

The bird fauna is also diverse. Gabon, which is mostly closed forest, contains 695 species, although the savanna patches in the center of the country and along the coast add species not found within this ecoregion. Odzala National Park alone contains 442 species (Dowsett-Lemaire 1997). The Trinational area of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo, Lobeke National Park in Cameroon, and Dzanga-Sangha National Park in the Central African Republic contain at least 428 species, including one recently discovered endemic forest robin, Stiphornis sanghensis. The ecoregion lies within the eastern portion of the Cameroon and Gabon Lowlands endemic bird area (EBA), and includes forest batis (Batis minima), Rachel's malimbe (Malimbus racheliae), and forest swallow (Hirundo fuliginosa). Important Bird Areas include Ipassa Strict Nature Reserve and Minkébé Forest Reserve in Gabon and Nouabale-Ndoki National Park complex and Odzala National Park complex in Republic of Congo, Dja Faunal Reserve, Boumba-Bek, Nki, and Lobéké National Park.

The species richness of amphibians and reptiles is also high. Among the amphibians are two endemic clawed frog species, Xeropus boumbaensis and X. pygmaeus. Endemic reptiles include the gray chameleon (Chameleo chapini), crested chameleon (C. cristatus), Grant's African ground snake (Gonionotophis grantii), Fuhn's five-toed skink (Leptosiaphos fuhni), Peter's lidless skink (Fanaspis breviceps), Cameroon stumptail chameleon (Rhampholeon spectrum), and Zenker's worm snake (Typhlops zenkeri).

A map of the priority sites for biodiversity conservation has been proposed in IUCN (1989), with more details in Gartlan (1989), Hecketsweiler (1990), Hecketsweiler et al. (1991), Hecketsweiler and Mokoko Ikonga (1991), Wilks (1990) Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1991), WWF (2000), and Fishpool and Evans (2001).

Current Status

This ecoregion contains large areas of forest and forms a part of one of the world's last remaining tropical forest wildernesses. Around one third of the forest is classified as "frontier forests" that are largely in their natural state.

Many of the most pristine areas of forest are located within protected areas, including Lobéké, Nouabale-Ndoki, Odzala, Dzanga, Ndoki, and Mbam Djerem. These comprise approximately 22,690 km2 or roughly 5.2 percent of the ecoregion. When other reserves such as the Dzangha-Sangha Special Reserve, Minkébé, Dja, Boumba-Bek, Nki, and Ngotto are also included, the total area under protection is 44,166 km2, or roughly ten percent of the ecoregion.

Conservation initiatives over the last decade have resulted in a number of newly gazetted areas. For example, the declaration of the Minkébé Forest Reserve (5,650 km2) marked a significant enhancement of the conservation area network in Gabon. In Congo, Odzala–Koukoua National Park (over 13,000 km2) has recently been extended. The Dzanga-Sangha forest in CAR is protected within the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent Dzanga-Sangha Faunal Reserve, totaling 4,347 km2, which is about eight percent of CAR's total closed forest estate. While the forest around Ngotto in CAR currently has no official protected area status, the Forêt de Ngotto (730 km2) is in the final stages of gazettement. In Cameroon, Dja, Boumba-Bek, Nki and Lac Lobéké protected areas cover an extensive area of lowland forest in the southern part of the country. One of the largest areas under protection is the Sangha Trinational protected area (10,650 km2), which combines the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park (over 4,000 km2) in northern Republic of Congo, Dzanga-Sangha complex in the Central African Republic (CAR), and the Lobéké National Park in Cameroon.

Types and Severity of Threats

Most of the ecoregion has been allocated to forestry concessions. Even within protected areas, logging is a concern. Although logging in the region is selective and habitat conversion is limited, the major issue is the depletion of wildlife in logging concessions through hunting for bushmeat and poaching for ivory. There are also technical problems with the sustainability of logging operations and also of the political will both of regional governments and the logging industry to operate sustainably.

Logging roads and other infrastructure developments are contributing to the uneven loss of habitat throughout the ecoregion, with more accessible regions most affected. Although the impact of this fragmentation on biodiversity is still poorly understood, the population densities of sensitive species (e.g. chimpanzees) are known to decline.

Road and infrastructure developments increase interactions between humans and animals, to the usual detriment of the latter. One direct impact is the bushmeat trade, which primarily affects duikers (Cephalophus spp.) that can comprise up to 80 percent of the harvest in certain sites, and monkeys (Cercopithecus, Cercobcebus, Mandrillus, Colobus spp.). Larger antelopes, Tragelaphus spp., apes (Gorilla and Pan), buffalo and pigs (Potamochoerus, Hylochoerus) are also affected. Even top predators such as crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus), leopard (Panthera pardus) and golden cat (Felis aurata) are affected as their prey animals are hunted out.

The logging industries' role in this trade has been heavily debated. However, there is little doubt that they provide a market (the logging camps), a transport system (the logging trucks), and a means of access (the logging roads) that are invaluable to the bushmeat industry.

In addition to the bushmeat industry some species are also hunted for trophies, fetishes and the pet trade. Elephants are still extensively poached for their meat and ivory. The trade in African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus) is well developed in some parts, especially in Cameroon where it threatens the survival of this species. Certain other species, such as crocodiles and lizards, face similar threats. Although professional safari hunting can be beneficial to conservation, this has rarely been the case in this ecoregion. Future threats to the forest include immigration of agricultural peoples into the logged forest areas.

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation

This ecoregion forms part of the greater Guineo-Congolian regional center of endemism. The northwestern limit of the ecoregion is the Sanaga River, a faunal boundary for such species as the golden angwantibo (Arctocebus aureus), white-bellied duiker (Cephalophus leucogaster), mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), and elegant needle-clawed galago (Euoticus elegantus). The Oubangui River also represents a faunal boundary to the northeast. Other borders follow 'Guineo-Congolian wet and dry rainforest' delineated by White. Small areas of swamp forest were subsumed within the ecoregion.

Additional Information on this Ecoregion

Further Reading

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Fund, W. (2014). Northwestern Congolian lowland forests. Retrieved from


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