# Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

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## History

### Proposal

LILCO President John J. Tuohy announced plans for the plant on April 13, 1965 during a stockholder's meeting.[1]  The plant was to be the first commercial nuclear power plant on Long Island and initially had little formal opposition, as Brookhaven already had multiple research nuclear reactors at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, about 20 miles south of Shoreham.  LILCO purchased a 455-acre (1.84 km2) site in an area which was sparsely populated at the time. They announced the plant would produce 540 megawatts, cost between $65 and$75 million and would be online in 1973.

At the time, demand for electricity was increasing more than 10 percent per year on Long Island and the Atomic Energy Commission was strongly encouraging all power companies to use nuclear power.

In 1968, LILCO increased the size of the plant from 540 to 820 megawatts and announced plans to build two more 1,150 megawatt reactors in Jamesport, New York, a hamlet twenty miles east of Shoreham. This proposal, however, was not received without widespread public disapproval.  It was deemed an unnecessary endeavor, with the public concerned over LILCO's seemingly over-ambitious plans to increase nuclear capacity on Long Island.  This proposal also came at a time when the demand for nuclear energy on Long Island was declining.  From 1973 to 1978, peak electrical demand rose by only 2-3 percent per year, contrary to the 40 percent increase predicted by LILCO in that same five year period.  The reactors at Jamesport were never built, but in the time spent negotiating over this proposal, public opposition over nuclear energy on Long Island increased.

Finally, in June 1989, the facility was closed down and the nuclear energy used to fuel it was removed. Three years later, the internal engines powering the facility were dismantled. The plant was finally decommissioned on October 12, 1994 with its $6 billion dollar price tag—an amount 85 times larger than its original estimate. ### Aftermath Decommissioning the plant was estimated to cost around$450 million. It eventually cost $186 million to decommission the reactor, with the radioactive materials license ending in May 1995. The low-pressure turbine rotors are currently in use at the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. LILCO paid Philadelphia Electric Company$50 million to take its fuel to the Limerick Nuclear Power Plant.

In 1995, LILCO's sky-high rates, and residual public anger over Shoreham, prodded Cuomo's successor, George Pataki, to reverse himself and broker a partial public takeover of LILCO by LIPA. The debacle led to the state takeover of LILCO itself in 1998 as it became the Long Island Power Authority.

The electric transmission infrastructure has remained, connecting it to the Long Island electric grid. In 2002 the Cross Sound Cable, a submarine power cable capable of transmitting 330 MW, was laid from the Shoreham plant across Long Island Sound to New Haven, Connecticut. During the Northeast Blackout of 2003 the cable was used to ease the effects of the blackout on Long Island. After extended negotiations with Connecticut the cable was put into permanent use.

In 2005, two 100-foot-high wind turbines with 25-foot blades were erected at the plant and attached to the electric grid, generating a peak power of 50 kilowatts each (1/8000 of the power that the nuclear plant would have generated).

The two, 50 kilowatt (kW) AOC wind turbines, situated on a 47-acre parcel of property owned by LIPA at Shoreham, are part of LIPA’s Clean Energy Initiative (CEI), a multi-year \$355-million program implemented at Governor George E. Pataki’s direction to promote energy conservation and efficiency, and to research, develop and implement the use of alternative energy technologies such as wind and solar power, and fuel cells.

The Shoreham wind project is the most recent development in LIPA's Land-Based Wind Turbine Demonstration Program, which is being advanced in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). NYSERDA is providing grant funding for the installation of the land-based turbines as part of its research and development efforts.

Glossary