South Appenine mixed montane forests

Content Cover Image

Etna Volcano, Sicily, Italy. (Source: Photograph by WWF MedPO/ Pedro Regato)


The South Apennines ecoregion covers the forested mountaintops of southern Italy and Sicily. The region supports an outstanding diversity of plants. Sicily, in particular, has many endemic species. Of 2,700 vascular species, over 20% are endemic, and a majority of these are concentrated in the Madonie Mountains of this ecoregion. There is also a significant faunal diversity in the southern Apennines. The rare Sicilian shrew (Crocidura sicula) is endemic to Sicily, and persists in the montane forests. The Sila and Pollino wolf populations are the largest in Italy. The ecoregion also hosts a number of endemic birds such as the Corsican nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi), as well as several endemic amphibians. Though the ecoregion has maintained the majority of its forest cover, pressures remain. Forestry management systems are inadequate and the mismanagement of pastures and over-grazing lead to further degradation.

Location and General Description

The South Apennines mixed forests ecoregion geographically covers a small area that is restricted to the high mountain massifs of the Italian regions of Basilicata, Calabria, and the island of Sicily. Climatically, the ecoregion is characterized by a sharp altitudinal gradient, from the warm and sub-humid lower elevations (average annual temperature of about 14-17º C) to the cold and per-humid higher elevations (over 2,200 milimeters, average annual temperature of about 9-13º C). Winters are rigorous with abundant snowfall. Frequent dense fogs envelop the mountain summits of southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily.

caption WWF

From the geological point of view, three major geologic systems can be distinguished. Paleozoic substrates (granite, schist, micaschist, diorite, and gneiss) compose the Aspromonte (Montalto, 1,955 m) and Sila (Botte Donato, 1929 m) massifs in Calabria, and Peloritani Montains (Rocca Salvatesta, 1,340 m) in Sicily. Volcanic rock forms the active Etna Volcano (almost 3,300 m) in Sicily. Mesozoic substrates (limestone, dolomite, marl, schist-marl, sandstone) make up the Pollino massif (Serra Dolcedorme, 2,267 meters; Pollino, 2,248 meters) between Basilicata and Calabria, and the Nebrodi (Mt. Soro, 1,847 m) and Madonie (Pizzo Carbonara, 1,977 m) Mountains in Sicily. The Alpine orogenic has been quite intense, resulting steep, complex reliefs. The intense volcanic activity in the Etna volcano is permanently transforming the mountain relief and strongly influencing the vegetation dynamic as well as human land-uses.

caption Etna Volcano, Sicily, Italy. (Source: Photograph by Pedro Regato/WWF MedPO)

The wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion results in several forest zones. The lowest elevations are characterized by the predominance of mixed sclerophyllous evergreen oak (Quercus ilex, Q. suber) and deciduous (Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Ostrya carpinifolia) forests. At medium elevations, mixed deciduous forests (Quercus cerris, Q. pubescens, Q. frainetto, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia) predominate.

The high elevations are characterized by an outstanding forest diversity, including a number of endemic and relict species. A sharp north-south gradient of plant communities is found at the highest elevations. Pinus laricio dominates on south-facing slopes with a more Mediterranean cold and xeric bioclimate type. Pinus laricio also dominates the highest elevations up to the timberline at Mt. Etna, colonizing volcanic rock after eruptions along with the endemic Etna birch (Betula aetniensis). The endemic and vulnerable Pinus heldreichii leucodermis only appears in the Pollino Mountains, where it predominates at the highest elevations, often forming mixed pine/beech forest stands. Silver fir (Abies alba) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) predominate on north-facing slopes and foggy, high plains, forming mixed forests where the larico pine often becomes an important component. The only relict stands (less than 100 individuals) of the endemic and very threatened Nebrodi fir (Abies nebrodensis) appear in the Madonie Mountains. Only the Etna volcano has high summits above the timber line, characterized by a thorny cushion shrub community of Astragalus siculus, Berberis aetniensis, and Juniperus communis alpina, as well as the Etna tree-broom (Genista aetniensis).

Biodiversity Features

The ecoregion hosts an outstanding plant diversity. The endemism rate of the Sicilian mountains is higher than 20%. The Sicilian total vascular flora is represented by 2,700 species and 310 endemics, and the Madonie Mountains alone support 50% of Sicily’s flora in less than 2% of the island’s area. The endemism rate of the Calabrian and Basilicata Mountains is between 10-20%.

This ecoregion has a significant faunal diversity, while the number of endemic species is reduced. The rare Sicilian shrew (Crocidura sicula) is the only mammal endemic to Sicily, and persists in the ecoregion’s forests. Large mammals include the Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus), which is absent in Sicily. The Sila and Pollino wolf populations are the largest in Italy. Among other noteworthy large mammals are the Italian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the wild cat (Felis silvestris), and the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

The region’s forests also host a number of endemic birds such as the Corsican nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi) which is ecologically adapted and restricted to mature pine trees of the Pinus laricio old-growth forests. Also present are endangered raptors and rare Paleartic birds. Endemic amphibian species are also distributed in certain mountain areas where conifer and broadleaf forests occur, for example Salamandra salamandra corsica, Discoglossus montalentii, and Euproctus montanus. Among the reptile species, the most representative species of this ecoregion also characterize similar forest ecosystems of mountain conifer and braodleaf mixed forests from the Southern European Mediterranean countries. These include Algyroïdes fitzingeri, Podarcis tiliguerta, and Podarcis sicula.

Current Status

The ecoregion has maintained the majority of its forest cover. Outstanding and extensive old-growth forests have remained until nowadays due to the inaccessibility of these mountain massifs. It is still possible to find very old individuals of laricio pine, natural monuments of about 600 years old, in the Sila Mountains. Human population remains very low and is mainly concentrated in the coastal areas. Nevertheless, grazing and forestry management have considerably modified the forest structure. Clear-cutting practices have lead to even-age stands with very few old trees and a poor plant understorey.

Types and Severity of Threats

Though deforestation has not been very intensive through the ecoregion, there is a high potential for human impact. Forestry management systems are inadequate and usage is overly intense. A certain amount of socio-political instability affects the ecoregion. The deliberate setting of forest fires is often the response to a lack of acceptance of social and political measures, such as the creation of new protected areas. Mismanagement of pastures and grazing, has also considerably increased the risk of forest fire.

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation

This ecoregion is equivalent to the DMEER (2000) unit of the same name, and is based on the vegetation coverage of Bohn et al. 2000. The ecoregion includes the sub-Mediterranean subcontinental thermophilous bitter oak forests, montane to altimontane beech and mixed beech forests, and oro-Mediterranean pine forests of southern Italy south of Naples. It also includes the sub-Mediterranean and meso-supra-Mediterranean downy oak forests, montane to altimontane beech and mixed beech forests, and oroxerophytic vegetation of northern Sicily.

Additional information on this ecoregion

Further Reading

  • Barbero, M. and P. Quezel 1975. Les forêts de Sapin sur le pourtour méditerranéen. Inst. Bot. Antonio José Cavanilles 32.
  • Bohn, U., G. Gollub, and C. Hettwer. 2000. Reduced general map of the natural vegetation of Europe. 1:10 million. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 2000.
  • Bonin, G., J. Briane and J. Gamisans 1976. Quelques aspects de forêts supraméditerranéennes et montagnardes de l'Apennin meridional. Ecologia Mediterranea, 1.
  • Bonin, G. and J. Gamisans 1976. Contribution á l’etude des forêts de l’étage supramediterranéen de l'Italie méridionale. Documents phytosoc., Lilie.
  • Boitani, L. 1999. Final Draft Action Plan for Conservation of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe. WWF, Switzerland.
  • Brigand, L. et al. 1991. Les iles en Mediterranee, enjeux et perspectives. Les Fascicules du Plan Bleu 5. Economica Ed. Paris.
  • Bulgarini, F. et al. 1998. Libro rosso degli animali d’Italia. Vertebrati. WWF, Rome.
  • Conti, F. et al. 1992. Libro rosso delle piante d’Italia. WWF, Rome.
  • Delanoë, O. et al. 1996. Conservation of Mediterranean Island Plants. IUCN Publication Service, Cambridge. ISBN: 2831703514
  • Delaugerre, M and M. Cheylan 1992. Batraciens et Reptiles de Corse. Parc Naturel Regional de Corse. ISBN: 2905468092
  • Digital Map of European Ecological Regions (DMEER), Version 2000/05 (
  • Gomez Campo, C. 1985. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Ecosystems. Junk Ed. (Geobotanica 7).
  • Heath, M.F. and Evans, M.I., editors. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. Vol 2: Southern Europe. BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No: 8). ISBN: 0946888361
  • McNeill, J.R. 1992. The Mountains of the Mediterranean World. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN: 0521522889
  • Medail, F. and Quezel, P. 1997. Hotspots Analysis for Conservation of Plant Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin. Ann. Missouri Gard. 84
  • Pennacchini, V. and G. Bonin 1975. Pinus leucodermis et Pinus nigra Arn. en Calabre septentrionale. Ecologia mediterranea, 1.
  • Pignatti, S. 1998. I Boschi d’Italia. Sinecologia e Biodiversità. UTET, Roma.
  • Sarà, M. 1998. I Mammiferi delle isole del Mediterraneo. EPOS Ed. Palermo.
  • Water, K.S., and Gillett, H.J., editors. 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by WCMC. IUCN, Publication Service Unit, Cambridge.
  • WWF and IUCN. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. 3 Volumes. IUCN Publication Service Unit. Cambridge.
  • WWF. 2001. The Mediterranean forests. A new conservation strategy. WWF, MedPO, Rome.
  • WWF. In preparation. Mediterranean Forest Gap Analysis Database. WWF, MedPO, Rome.


Fund, W. (2014). South Appenine mixed montane forests. Retrieved from


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