Ujung Kulon National Park and Krakatau Nature Reserve, Indonesia

Geographical location

Ujung Kulon National Park (6° 45'S, 105° 20'E) and Krakatau Nature Reserve (6° 06'S, 105° 25'E) make up a World Heritage Site. Ujung Kulon National Park lies on the extreme south-western tip of Java within the administrative province of Java Barat (West Java) and the Kebupaten of Pandeglang. The point to point ocean boundary encloses Ujung Kulon Peninsula and the offshore islands of Pulau Handeuleum and Pulau Peucang, whilst the island of Pulau Panaitan is separated by the 10 kilometers (km) wide Panaitan Straits. The eastern boundary follows contours along the eastern foothills of the Gunung Honje massif. Krakatau Nature Reserve comprises the four islands of the Krakatau group which lie some 60 km to the north between Java and Sumatra. The reserve lies within Lampung administrative province, Sumatra. Access to Ujung Kulon is possible by boat from Labuan on the west coast of Java. Road access is also possible from Labuan via Sumur to Cikawung at the base of the southwestern slopes of Gunung Honje Range, and via Cibadak to Cegog on the south coast. Ujung Kulon lies approximately at 6° 45'S, 105° 20'E and Krakatau approximately at 6° 06'S, 105° 25'E.

Date and History of Establishment

caption Anak Krakatau is part of the Krakatau Nature Reserve. (Source: NASA: Earth Observatory)

  • Pulau Panaitan/Pulau Peucang Nature Reserve was established in 1937 under Decree No. GB/17/Stbl/420, Ujung Kulon Nature Reserve in 1958 under Decree No. 48/kpts/Um/4/58 and Gunung Honje Nature Reserve established in 1967. Krakatau was notified as a Nature Reserve in 1921.
  • In 1980, the nature reserves of Ujung Kulon Peninsula, Panaitan Island, South Gunung Honje, North Gunung Honje and the Krakatau Islands were declared a Proposed National Park.
  • On 1 February, 1992, the Proposed Ujung Kulon National Park complex and the Krakatau Islands Nature Reserve were declared a World Heritage Site under Decree No. SC/ECO/5827.2.409., following inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List in December 1991.
  • On 26 February, 1992, the nature reserves and a substantial addition to the marine reserve were formally combined and declared to be Ujung Kulon National Park under authority of the Minister of Forestry, Decree No.284/Kpts-II/1992.
  • On 3 May 1992 the management of the Krakatau Nature Reserve was transferred to Nature Resource Conservation, Lampung, Sumatra.

Area

  • Ujung Kulon National Park 120,551hectares (ha) (terrestrial: 76,214 ha; marine: 44,337 ha)
  • Krakatau Nature Reserve 2,500 ha

Land Tenure

Government.

Altitude

Ranges from sea level to 620 meters (m) at the summit of Gunung Honje.

Physical Features

Ujung Kulon is a triangular peninsula protruding from the southwest extremity of mainland Java, to which it is joined by a low isthmus some 1-2 km wide. The topography is dominated in the southwest by the three north-south aligned ridges of the Gunung Payung massif, with the peaks of Gunung Payung, Gunung Guhabendang and Gunung Cikuja forming the highest points on the peninsula. To the northeast, the relief attenuates to the low rolling hills and plains of the Telanca Plateau, and ultimately to the low-lying swamps in the region of the isthmus. To the east the Gunung Honje massif forms the mainland component of the park. Coastal formations include a number of raised coral islands and their associated fringing reefs which lie off the northern coast of the peninsula, the largest of these being Pulau Handeuleum. To the south, the coastline is characterized by sand dune formations, areas of raised coral reef, and further west a long stretch of undermined and shattered sandstone slabs. Extensive coral reefs and spectacular volcanic formations occur along the exposed and broken west coast.

Geologically, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Honje and Pulau Panaitan are part of a young Tertiary mountain system, which overlies the pre-Tertiary strata of the Sunda Shelf. Both Ujung Kulon and Gunung Honje are thought to have formed the southernmost extension of the Bukit Barisan mountains during the Pleistocene, having become separated from Sumatra following the collapse of the arched Sunda straits dome. Central and eastern Ujung Kulon comprise raised Miocene limestone formations, which have become overlain in the north by alluvial deposits and in the south by sandstones. To the west, the Gunung Payung massif is of Miocene sedimentary origin, while the Gunung Honje massif to the east is an eastward tilted mountain block, its western edge being broken by a fault line running parallel to the coast. To the north of the peninsula, Pulau Panaitan displays a similar pattern of deposition and uplift as the Gunung Payung massif, although volcanic material and breccias form outcrops in the northwest. Soils have undergone extensive local modification following deposition of volcanic ash during the 1883 Krakatau eruption. The central plateau is typified by grumusols, regosols and mediterrans, while the Gunung Payung and Honje massifs are overlain with yellowish-red and brown latosols. To the northwest and east along the peninsula and narrow isthmus coast, alluvial hydromorphs predominate. Drainage is from three distinct water catchments. Telanca Plateau drains southward via the Citadahan, Cibandawoh and Cikeusik rivers, and northeast and eastward via the Cikarang and Cigenter rivers while the southwestern massif drains radially via numerous perennial streams. Gunung Honje drains westward to Welcome Bay and southwards to the Indian Ocean.

Lying on the edge of the tectonically active Sunda Shelf, Krakatau Nature Reserve comprises the central island of Anak Krakatau (child of Krakatau), and the peripheral islands of Rakata, Payang and Sertung with their surrounding coral reefs. These peripheral islands form the remnants of a single andesitic volcano ('Ancient Krakatau') which exploded and collapsed some 1,500 years ago leaving three remnant cones. These eventually coalesced into an island, Krakatau, which erupted on 26 and 27 August 1883 killing more than 36,000 people in the immediate area and expelling some 18 to 21 cubic kilometers (km3) of material. Subsequent volcanic activity began 40 years after the main explosion, eventually resulting in the emergence of Anak Krakatau in 1930 which has now reached 181 m in height and 2 km in diameter. The area continues to experience volcanic activity, with significant eruptions taking place in 1952, 1972, 1992 and 1994.

Climate

Conditions are tropical maritime, with a seasonal mean annual rainfall of approximately 3,249 millimeters (mm). Heaviest rainfall is between October and April during the northwest monsoon, and a noticeably drier period occurs between May and September during the southeast monsoon. Mean monthly rainfall figures of 400 mm have been recorded for December and January, and 100 mm per month during May to September. Mean temperatures range between 25 degrees Celsius (°C) and 30°C and relative humidity between 65% and 100%.

Vegetation

caption The Lagerstroemia speciosa is one of the dominant tree species in the closed canopy forest on Gunung Payung. (Source: James Cook University)

Vegetation has been subject to a number of anthropogenic and natural modifications, of which the most notable is the Krakatau eruption of 1883. As a result, primary lowland rain forest, the natural vegetation cover, now occupies only 50% of the total area, being largely confined to the Gunung Payung and Honje massifs.

A tall closed canopy forest occurs on Gunung Payung and is characterized by Dillenia excelsa, Pentace polyantha and Syzygium sp., with an understory of low palms and herbs. Primary forest also occurs on Pulau Peucang and is typified by an open canopy with numerous emergents up to 40 m in height. Dominant tree species are Parinari corymbosum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Rinorea lanceolata, Pterospermum diversifolium, Intsia bijuga, Eugenia spp., Aglaia spp., and Diospyros spp. Primary lowland forest of the Gunung Honje region includes Pterospermum javanicum, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Ficus spp. and Eugenia spp. Understory includes palms such as Arenga obtusifolia and rotan Calamus sp. The higher slopes are characterized by trees such as Castanopsis sp. which occur in a denser canopy dominated by Podocarpus neriifolius, Turpinia sphaerocarpa, Fagraea racemosa, Dipterocarpus hasseltii, Aphanamixis spp. and Eurya spp. The understory is characterized by extensive moss growth, both on the ground and on trees, as well as by the occurrence of epiphytic orchids such as Asplenium nidus and ferns such as Freycinetia sp. Vegetation of the Telanca Plateau and central lowlands is a more open secondary forest, dominated by palms, such as Arenga pinnata, Caryota mitis and Arenga obtusifolia, which may occur in almost pure stands interspersed with taller canopy trees, such as Lagerstroemia flosreginae, Diospyros macrophylla, Vitex pubescens, Ficus sp., and Planchonia valida. Alternating with palm forest are dense stands of bamboo and Zingiberaceae, such as Achasma spp., Nicolaia spp. and Lontana camara. Occurring along the northern promontory of Ujung Kulon near Tanjung alang-alang is a seasonally inundated freshwater swamp forest. Dominant tree species include Typha angustifolia and Cyperus sp., of which the commonest is C. pilosus. Mangrove forest occurs in a broad belt along the northern side of the isthmus, extending northwards as far as the Cikalong River, as well as to the north of Pulau Handeuleum and on the northeast coast of Pulau Panaitan. Tree species include Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Avicennia spp., Rhizophora spp., and Bruguiera spp. Beach forest occurs on nutrient-poor sandy ridges on the north and northwest coasts of Ujung Kulon, and is typified by such species as Calophyllum inophyllum, Barringtonia asiatica, Hernandia peltata, Guettarda speciosa, Terminalia catappa and Pongamia pinnata. Other coastal vegetation types include pioneering pescapre formations along the upper edge of beaches, above the high tide mark. Characteristic species include Ipomoea pescaprae, Spinifex littoreus and Canavalia maritima. A number of artificially created grasslands totalling 64 ha are maintained as grazing grounds for ungulates. At least 50 species of rare plants are present.

Vegetation of the Krakatau group is characterized by a number of different stages of succession. Rakata, the largest 'outer' island, contains extensive Neonauclea calycina-dominated moss forest which extends from the summit region down to approximately 650 m. Sertung, to the northwest, is maintained in a state of early biotic succession by active geologygeological processes of erosion and accretion. The central volcanically active island of Anak Krakatau is characterized by vegetation in the early stages of succession following effective sterilization by the eruption of 1952. The eruptions between 1992 and 1994 have again severely retarded the colonization of Anak Krakatau, with the coastal stand of cemara Casuarina euisetifolia being cut by a lava flow. The development of the vegetation and floras of the Krakatau Islands is described by Whittaker et al. (1989).

Fauna

 

Ujung Kulon is the last remaining viable natural refuge for Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus (CR), for which the most recent estimate indicates a stable total population of about 60 individuals. Javan tiger Panthera tigris (EN) was locally extirpated about 40 years ago.

Other notable mammals include carnivores, such as leopard Panthera pardus, wild dog or dhole Cuon alpinus (VU), leopard cat Felis bengalensis, fishing cat F. viverrina (LR), Javan mongoose Herpestes javanicus and several civets, including binturong Arctictis binturong. Of the primates, the endemic species Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch (CR) and Javan leaf monkey Presbytis comata (EN) occur locally along with the endemic silvered leaf monkey P. cristata, while crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis (LR) is found throughout the park. Several ungulates range within the park, of which the largest and most abundant is banteng Bos javanicus (EN), with a population of around 700 on Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Gunung Honje. Other species include muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, lesser mouse deer Tragulus javanicus, rusa deer Cervus timorensis and wild boar Sus scrofa. A rich avifauna is present with over 270 species recorded, including green peafowl Pavo muticus (VU), two species of jungle fowl Gallus gallus and G. varius, reef heron Egretta sacra, dusky grey heron Ardea sumatrana (LR), osprey Pandion haliaetus, Brahminy kite Haliastur indus, white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster, ruddy kingfisher Halcyon coromanda and frigate bird Fregatta ariel. In addition, three species of Ciconiidae (storks), 11 species of Columbidae (pigeons and doves) and 16 species of Cuculidae (cuckoos) also occur. Terrestrial reptiles and amphibians include two species of python, namely reticulated python Python reticulatus and Indian python P. molurus (LR) as well as two crocodiles, false gharial Tomistoma schlegelii (DD) and estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus,and numerous frogs and toads. Green turtle Chelonia mydas (EN) is known to nest within the park. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Krakatau Islands is described by Rawlinson et al. (1990).

Some 40 species of resident birds have been recorded from the Krakatau group by Thornton et al. (1984), seven more than recorded in 1952 by Hoogerwerf (1953). Species include black-naped fruit pigeon Ptilinopus melanospila, large brown cuckoo dove Macropygia phasianella, emerald dove Chalcophaps indica, collared kingfisher Halcyon chloris and yellow-vented bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier. Two species normally associated with mangroves, mangrove flycatcher Cyornis rufigastra and mangrove whistler Pachycephala cinerea, are notable as having persisted on the islands despite the loss of favored habitat. The birds of the Krakatau group are described by Zann et al. (1990) and their colonization of these islands by Thornton et al. (1988) and Zann et al. (1990). Avifaunal inventories are given by Hoogerwerf (1953, 1969), Blower and van der Zon (1977) and Thornton et al. (1984). A preliminary faunal inventory for the Krakatau islands can be found in Thornton et al. (1984).

A detailed account of the Ujung Kulon and Krakatau reefs can be found in UNEP/IUCN (1988). The rich coral reefs of the Ujung Kulon coast are dominated by a small number of species that make up some 90% of the coral mass. Of these, table top coral Acropora spp. may dominate at 3-15 m below sea level, while Acropora spp. and Pocillopora spp. may be co-dominant in shallower water. Other shallow water species include Millepora platyphylla and Porites lutea. Below 15 m, Gorgonacea (sea fans) are abundant, along with Favia sp., Favites sp., Dipluria sp., Turbinaria sp. and Echinopora sp. According to Halim and Kvalvagnaes (1980), the marine areas of Ujung Kulon support some of the richest fish fauna in the archipelago, with both deep water and reef species well represented. Deep water species include barracuda, sailfish, tuna, skipjack and sharks, while reef fish include 15 species of butterfly fish, such as Chaetodon spp., four species of triggerfish, including Odonis niger and Balistoides niger, as well as angel fish Pomocanthus sp., batfish Platax junnatus and P. orbicularis, and moorish idol Zanclus cornutus. Notable fish of the intertidal and brackish zones include archer fish and mudskippers. The invertebrate fauna is rich and includes cowries Stromus sp., as well as Lamlas sp. and Nautilus sp. Preliminary inventories of reef fish, mollusks and corals can be found in Halim and Kvalvagnaes (1980).

The reefs of the Krakatau Islands, particularly the narrow patch reefs to the west of Sertung and north of Rakata, are in the process of being colonized by pioneer species, such as Porites spp., and secondary colonizers such as Acropora sp. and Pocillopora sp. Salm et al. (1982) give faunal inventories for marine areas of Krakatau.

Cultural Heritage

Pulau Panaitan has a Ganesha statue on the summit of Mount Raksa, an early Hindu archaeological relic from the first century AD, and the island is thought to have been an important staging post for sailing ships passing through the Sunda Straits. Captain James Cook is known to have anchored HMS Endeavour on the southeastern side of Panaitan Island from 6th-16th January 1771. At this time 300 houses were recorded in the village of Samadang. Panaitan was then known as Princes Island. Since the early 1800's, a lighthouse has been maintained at Tanjung Layar, on the extreme western point of the peninsular. The current lighthouse id the third structure to be built.

Local Human Population

There are 19 villages in the area to the north, west and east of the Gunung Honje range, populated by 44, 518 people. A number of villages encroach into the park, but there is only one permanent settlement within the park at Legon Pakis of 60 families. Some of these families are choosing to accept translocation packages and move out of the park. The Krakatau islands are uninhabited.

Visitors and Visitor Facilities

The park receives 6,500 visitors per year, half of whom are foreigners. Good accommodation is available at Peucang Island, and at Handeuleum Island there is an 8 bed lodge. There is village accommodation and a park information centre at Tamanjaya. Camping areas are being established at Citalang and Nyawaan on the northern coast. There are good trails in the park with a number of guard-posts and shelters.

Scientific Research and Facilities

Research has been conducted on Javan rhinoceros, banteng, avifauna, marine resources and landscape ecology. The Krakatau Islands have been extensively studied, particularly with respect to colonization by plants and various faunal groups. Much of the research is published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B (1988, 1990). The permanent recording devices of volcanic activity on Anak Krakatau were destroyed by the 1992 eruptions, and there had not been any further on-site monitoring, as the eruptions continue.

Conservation Value

Ujung Kulon National Park protects one of the last extensive remaining areas of lowland rain forest in Java and is of special importance for the conservation of Javan rhinoceros. In addition, the coastal coral reef environment ranks among the richest in Indonesia. The Krakatau islands are of great scientific interest because they provide one of the world's best examples of recent island vulcanism and tropical vegetation succession.

Conservation Management

According to the 1977 and 1989 management plans, principal management priorities are to ensure the long-term survival of the Javan rhinoceros and other endangered species, within a self-perpetuating rain forest ecosystem. These aims are achieved by regular enforcement measures and a system of four types of management zone. Of these, the buffer zones surrounding the Gunung Honje Range encompasses 19 village areas. Assistance with [[socioeconomic development|social economic development] is being sought along with the development of weed lots and local industries. Other activities, such as tourist accommodation, will be provided within development zones, while wilderness zones will allow limited tourist development and management activities. Full protection of the peninsula will be accorded through sanctuary zones to which access will be prohibited except for patrol and research. Current management activities include regular anti-poaching patrols and maintenance of grazing grounds for banteng.

As proposed by Halim and Kvalvagnaes (1980), the boundaries of Ujung Kulon have been extended seawards to include areas of ocean and coral reef. Santiapillai and Ramono (1989) make a number of management recommendations including: strengthening the capabilities of the guard force by provision of equipment such as radio communication and coastal patrol boats; implementing a buffer zone to stabilize the eastern boundaries of Gunung Honje; and developing nature-oriented tourism. Some 12 manned ranger stations are located at key points within the park. Management proposals currently under evaluation include the introduction of cash crops such as bamboo and rattan in adjacent buffer zones. Controversial proposals have been put forward by the IUCN Asian Rhino Specialist group to remove some 25 Javan rhinoceros for a captive breeding program. This is in order to mitigate the alleged effects of inbreeding depression and to reduce the population's susceptibility to environmental perturbation. An account of the debate can be found in Khan bin Momin Khan (1990) and MacKinnon et al. (1990). A census of the rhino population using an automated camera system commenced in January 1991. The single illegal settlement within the park was due to be moved in 1993. Park management is currently being supported by WWF-Indonesia, the New Zealand government and Minnesota Zoo, USA.

Management Constraints

The forests of the eastern Gunung Honje area are under increasing pressure from agricultural encroachment, illegal logging and firewood collection from the heavily populated areas to the east. According to Ramono and Santiapillai (n.d.), the threat of rhino poaching remains serious. Other management problems include illegal commercial fishing within park boundaries, collection of algae for agar production, and predation of turtle eggs from nesting beaches by monitor lizards and wild boar. In addition, Selamet Datang Bay and its coral reefs have undergone siltation due to deforestation activities on Gunung Honje. Oil pollution from passing tankers remains a potential threat.

Staff

A total of 113 staff in 1994, including four structural staff (park chief and heads of subdivisions), 14 community liasors, 11 for protection, and 84 general and administration staff.

Budget

Rp 1,147,757,000 in 1994.

IUCN Management Category

  • Ujung Kulon National Park, II, (National Park)
  • Krakatau Nature Reserve, Ia, (Strict Nature Reserve)
  • Natural World Heritage Site - Criteria ii, iii

Further Reading

  • Alikodra, H.S. (1987). The ecology of banteng (Bos Javanicus) in the national park of Ujung Kulon. In: The conservation and management of endangered plants and animals. Biotrop Special Publication No. 30. SEAMEO-BIOTROP, Bogor. Pp. 161-167.
  • Ammann, H. (1985). Contributions to the ecology and sociology of the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondiacus Desm.). Inaugural dissertation for Ph.D., University of Basel.
  • Blower, J.H. and van der Zon, A.P.M. (1977). Ujung Kulon National Park management plan 1977-1981. Field report. UNDP/FAO Nature Conservation and Wildlife Management Project INS/73/013. FAO, Bogor. 54 pp.
  • Clarbrough, M. (1993). Visitor Survey of Ujong Kulon National Park. Governments of Indonesia and New Zealand.
  • Clarbrough, M. (1994). Summary of Historical Accounts relating to the Tanjung Layar Lighthouse Site. Governments of Indonesia and New Zealand.
  • Compton, S.G., Thornton, I.W.B., New, T.R. and Underhill, L. (1988). The colonization of the Krakatau Islands by fig wasps and other Chalcids (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 322: 459-470.
  • Government of Indonesia (1990). Nomination of Ujung Kulon National Park and Krakatau Nature Reserve, Indonesia, for inclusion in the World Heritage list. Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta. 24 pp.
  • Halim, M.H. and Kvalvagnaes, K. (1980). Marine resources of the proposed Ujung Kulon National Park. Field report. UNDP/FAO National Park Development Project INS/78/061. FAO, Bogor. 18 pp.
  • Hommel, P.W.F.M. (1987). Landscape-ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia). Soil Survey Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 206 pp. ASIN: B0007BE576
  • Hoogerwerf, A. (1953). Some notes about the Nature Reserve Pulau Panaitan (Prinseneiland) in Strait Sunda. Treubia 21: 481-505.
  • Hoogerwerf, A. (1969). On the ornithology of the rhino sanctuary Ujung Kulon in West Java, Indonesia; some particulars on the history, geomorphology, topography and vegetation. The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 23: 9-19.
  • Hoogerwerf, A. (1970). Ujung Kulon, the land of the last Javan rhinoceros. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 512 pp. (Unseen)
  • Hoogerwerf, A. (1971). On the ornithology of the rhino sanctuary Ujung Kulon in West Java, Indonesia. The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 24: 127-135.
  • Khan bin Momin Khan, M. (1990). Asian rhino specialist group. Species 15: 43.
  • MacKinnon, K., Santiapillai, C. and Betts, R. (1990). WWF Indonesia Programme statement on conservation priorities for Javan and Sumatran rhinos in Indonesia. WWF-Indonesia, Bogor. Unpublished report. 5 pp.
  • New, T.R., Bush, M.B., Thornton, I.W.B. and Sudarman, H.K. (1988). The butterfly fauna of the Krakatau Islands after a century of colonization. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 322: 445-457.
  • Ramono, W. and Santiapillai, C. (n.d.). WWF Project No. 3875: Management of Ujung Kulon National Park. Progress Report No. 2. WWF-Indonesia, Bogor. 9 pp.
  • Rawlinson, P.A., Widjoya, A.H.T., Hutchinson, M.N. and Brown, G.W. (1990). The terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Sunda Strait, 1883-1986. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 328: 3-28.
  • Salm, R.V., Sukotjo, and Genolagani, J. (1982). Krakatau: survey of coastal habitats (marine conservation in Indonesia). Direktorat Perlindungan dan Pengawetan Alam, Bogor. 11 pp.
  • Santiapillai, C. and Suprahman, H. (1986). The proposed translocation of the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Biological Conservation 38: 11-19.
  • Santiapillai, C. and Ramono, W. (1989). WWF Project No. 3875: Management of Ujung Kulon National Park. Progress Report, October-December. Unpublished. Pp. 12-23.
  • Santiapillai, C., Sukohadi, W. and Darmadja, B.P. (1990). Status of the Javan rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park. Tigerpaper 17(2): 1-8.
  • Schenkel, R. and Schenkel-Hulliger, L. (1969). The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desm.) in Udjung Kulon Nature Reserve: its ecology and behaviour. Field Study 1967 and 1968. Acta Tropica 26: 97-134.
  • Schenkel, R., Schenkel-Hulliger, L. and Ramono, W.S. (1978). Area management for the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desm.): a pilot study. The Malayan Nature Journal 31: 253-275.
  • Silvius, M.J., Djuharsa, E. and Taufik, A.W. (1989). Pulau Panaitan, Indonesia. In: Scott, D.A. (Ed.), A directory of Asian wetlands. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 1017-1018. ISBN: 2880329841
  • Smith, B.J. and Djajasasmita, M. (1986). The land molluscs of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 323: 379-400.
  • Sriyanto, A., Priambudi, A., Haryono, Djarkasih, Hasan, A.(1996) Current status of the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in Ujung Kulon National Park. Tigerpaper 23(4): 23-29.
  • Thornton, I.W.B. (Ed.)(1984). 1984 Zoological expedition to the Krakataus. Preliminary report. Department of Zoology, la Trobe University, Victoria, Australia. 57 pp.
  • Thornton, I.W.B. and New, T.R. (1988). Krakatau invertebrates: the 1980s fauna in the context of a century of recolonization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 322: 493-522.
  • Thornton, I.W.B., New, T.R. and Vaughan, P.J. (1987). Colonization of the Krakatau Islands by Psocoptera (Insecta). Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 322: 427-443.
  • Thornton, I.W.B., Zann, R.A., Rawlinson, P.A., Tidemann, C.R., Adikerana, A.S. and Widjoya, A.H.T. (1988). Colonization of the Krakatau Islands by vertebrates: equilibrium, succession and possible delayed extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85: 515-518.
  • Thornton, I.W.B., Zann, R.A. and Stephenson, D.G. (1990). Colonization of the Krakatau Islands by land birds, and the approach to an equilibrium number of species. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 328: 55-94.
  • Tidemann, C.R., Kitchener, D.J., Zann, R.A. and Thornton, I.W.B. (1990). Recolonization of the Krakatau Islands and adjacent areas of West Java, Indonesia, by bats (Chiroptera) 1883-1986. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 328: 121-130.
  • UNEP/IUCN (1988). Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf. UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp. 120-121.
  • Whittaker, R.J., Bush, M.B. and Richards, K. (1989). Plant recolonization and vegetation succession on the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Ecological Monographs 59: 59-123.
  • WWF (1991). Computerize Javan rhino census. Conservation Indonesia 7: 8.
  • Zann, R.A., Male, E.B. and Darjono (1990). Bird colonization of Arak Krakatau, an emergent volcanic island. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 328: 95-120.
  • Zann, R.A., Walker, M.V., Adhikerana, A.S., Davison, G.W., Male, E.B. and Darjono (1990). The birds of Krakatau Islands (Indonesia) 1984-86. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B 328: 29-54.



Disclaimer: This article is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally published by, the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Topic editors and authors for the Encyclopedia of Earth may have edited its content or added new information. The use of information from the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) should not be construed as support for or endorsement by that organization for any new information added by EoE personnel, or for any editing of the original content.

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Citation

M, U. (2009). Ujung Kulon National Park and Krakatau Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/156761

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