Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis: Reader's Guide

September 6, 2011, 12:03 pm
Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Content Cover Image

This is part of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment report Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis.

Core Writing Team:  Carlos Corvalan, Simon Hales, Anthony McMichael

Extended Writing Team: Colin Butler, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Ulisses Confalonieri, Kerstin Leitner, Nancy Lewis, Jonathan Patz, Karen Polson, Joel Scheraga, Alistair Woodward, Maged Younes and many MA authors.

Review Editors: José Sarukhán and Anne Whyte (co-chairs); Philip Weinstein and other members of the MA Board of Review Editors.

This report synthesizes the findings from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's (MA) global and sub-global assessments of how ecosystem changes do, or could, affect human health and well-being. All the MA authors and review editors have contributed to this report through their contributions to the underlying assessment chapters on which this text is based.

Five additional MA synthesis reports were prepared to facilitate access to information by other audiences: general overview; UNCCD (desertification); CBD (biological diversity); Ramsar Convention (wetlands); and business. Each MA sub-global assessment also will produce additional reports to meet the needs of its own audience. The full technical assessment reports of the four MA working groups will be published in mid-2005 by Island Press.

All of the assessment's printed materials, together with core data and a glossary of terminology used in the technical reports, will be available on the Internet at Appendix A lists the acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. References for the underlying chapters in the full technical assessment reports of each working group appear in parentheses in the body of this synthesis report. A list of the assessment report chapters is provided in Appendix B.

The following set of words has been used, where appropriate, to indicate estimated levels of certainty about the observations or conclusions: very certain (98% or greater probability), high certainty (85-98% probability), medium certainty (65-85% probability), low certainty (52-65% probability) and very uncertain (50-52% probability). These estimates are based on the collective judgment of the authors, using the observational evidence, modelling results and relevant theory. Elsewhere the following qualitative scale is used to gauge the level of scientific understanding: wellestablished, established but incomplete, competing explanations and speculative. These terms appear in italics.

Throughout this report, dollars ($) indicate U.S. dollars, and tonne means metric tonne. The term billion is used in accordance with the WHO definition – of one thousand millions.

Terms of Use

The copyright for material on this page is the property of the World Health Organization. Click here for the terms of use.

Disclaimer: This chapter is taken wholly from, or contains information that was originally written for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as published by the World Health Organization. The content has not been modified by the Encyclopedia of Earth.

This is a chapter from Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis (full report).
Previous: Foreword  |  Table of Contents  |  Next: Summary for Decision-Makers



(2011). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis: Reader's Guide. Retrieved from


To add a comment, please Log In.